Given that the images displayed on TV really help on providing the context, I often didn't have much trouble with spoken Italian, although I was always lost myself when it was hard to figure out what the context was, despite the images.
In my opinion, written Italian, on the other hand, is harder to understand when compared to written Spanish. MOC said:. Do you find spoken Italian to be easier to understand than spoken Spanish? Estudei italiano por um ano Ayazid said:. Odinh said:. Which one of the Portuguese varieties? As far as know, Spaniards consider Brazilian Portuguese easier to understand.
Spoken Italian is a different story, but I understand it better than Spanish. Pedrovski Senior Member English, Portuguese. Definitely not mutually intelligible for me. I met two Italian erasmus students a while back, and when they spoke to each other in their native language I felt like I was listening to Greek. Written Italian I can understand reasonably well, although I'm slightly biased given that I had 5 years of french back in high school.
Pedrovski said:. That's odd. Your learning of french made you understand written Italian? I asked just out of curiosity, because the reason why I can understand Italian without ever studying it is because of its similarity with Spanish, and not french. As for the similarity of Napoletano and other South Italian Dialects with Portuguese, what comes to my mind are certainly its definite articles o and a instead of classical Italian il and la , so "il Tuo Nome" becomes "o nomme tujo" in Napoletano "j" is pronounciated like y.
I've studied a little Brazilian Portugese, and Id say that the spoken form is very different from "Standard Italian". I have a funny embarrassing moment to tell - not mine - about it. Obrigado para a boa vinda. BlueWolf Senior Member Italy. I remember I could understand some written Portuguese, since Italian and Portuguese are sometimes even closer than Italian and Spanish, but in general Spanish has always been more understandable.
The spoken language is an other thing. I could understand nothing of Portuguese before I started to study it. Portuguese and Italian have some words in common different from the equivalent in Spanish. For example: porta port - puerta esp - porta it. Although he speaks only Italian and English he was able to understand considerable part of what the people there were telling him in Portuguese and this Portuguese-Italian communication also worked quite well in the other way around.
However, when he visited on some occasion Rio de Janeiro he was forced to spend much bigger effort to understand anything said to him in carioca accent. Or more exactly, as he said he understood: "quasi niente". Also some other experiences about this subject which I have read or heard rather confirm the fact that Sulista and Paulista accents are generally easier for Spanish and Italian speakers to understand than those from Rio de Janeiro northward.
Alandria said:. I tought that caipira dialect was the most dificult to understand for spanish and italian speakers. Do you know that dialect? I don't think so, but if you think so Well, I'm italian and I learnt brazilian portuguese. An italian person finds easier to understand spoken portuguese from portugal and written portuguese from brasil than written portuguese from Portugal and spoken portuguese from Brasil. Itaians find hard to get portuguese from portugal because of the particles they put in the middle of the verbs while they find difficult spoken portuguese from Brasil because there people change the sound of some letters such as "l" which they pronounce u when it isn't followed by a consonant, just to name one i.
Brasil is pronounced Brasiu. For instance a word like "automatically" is written in the same way by italians, portuguese and brasilians automaticamente but said in a different way. Two people speaking their mother tongue talk quickly so it's normal that foreigners don't get what they are telling,!
Anyway we, italian people understand better spanish than portuguese and much better south american spanish than castellan from Spain! Expecially we sicilians and people from southern Italy. Maybe because of the old spanish domination that has left lots of words in our dialects. That's the simple point of view of an italian guy! Yeah, I meant the mesoclisis: those make it portuguese hard to get!
Anyway I agree that written portuguese, both the brasilian and the european versions are not so difficult! The more I study it the more I find new words that look like sicilian. For instance, the article is egual to the sicilian one even though it's written differently There's no doubt that the brasilian spoken portuguese is harder to understand for an italian but it sounds so sweet!
Just to clarify that Mr. Ayazid meant more or less difficult for comprehension for himself , of course, as all accents are perfectly comprehensible for native speakers or even proficient foreign speakers. Ayazid , I can't see where in post you found so much sarcasm. It wasn't intended to be sarcastic, not really! I just wanted to point out that the so-called "lesser comprehensibility" of accents like the nordestino was just a matter of personal opinion of a learner of the language, who, curiously, never writes an entire post in the language on which he makes such categorical remarks.
I wouldn't have gone to the trouble of posting that if you had done so yourself. I can assure you that anyone from anywhere in Brazil is absolutely capable of understanding whatever accents spoken in Brazil, even if they don't like it another matter of personal opinion. That by no means mean that nordestino accent is "of more difficult comprehension" --that, yes, would be a gross generalization, because you are speaking for yourself or perhaps for learners whose first language is Czech.
Anyway, I think my post served the purpose if making that clear for the others who may take interest in the discussion. FranParis Banned Paris. Todos os brasileiros sao maravilhosos e adorei falar com eles e morar com eles muito. RaiTunes is a programme with a younger audience, while the Facebookpublic of Caterpillar and Io Sono Qui is in line with the average public of the radio stations that air them. Schedule: Monday-Friday, His name is a benchmark in music radio formats and his voice represents thereal brand of the programme.
The music format see below is addressed to urban listeners and a young audience. Music is mixed live by DJ Frankie B, an international music producer and sound designer well-known on the clubscene. The presenter, himself a musician and DJ, frequently performs with Frankie B.
The programme was chosenbecause of its great appeal to younger generations this is in fact the most important show addressed to them ,for its cross media approach and for its considerable and innovative use of social media. Once or twice a week usually Tuesdays and Thursdays the playlist is user-generated, that is it is put together by the community oflisteners together with the presenter.
The selection is made during the day before the evening show on theFacebook fan page of the programme. The fans are young and extremely active. They post an average of 60 to You Tube links to music videos every day even on weekends.
The page is constantly updated throughout theday. Fans keep on posting at every hour, day and night. It resembles a collective stream of consciousness. Music video posting is the realglue of the RaiTunes community. The listeners of the show are used to music shows, are used to go to concertsand they behave like a concert audience.
The fans who post on the wall demonstrate a wide musical knowledge,perfectly matching the musical choice of the presenter. Before and after the show the fans keep on posting music and making comments about it, but when theshow begins something special happens: they stop posting music and start listening to the programme, leavingthe FB page open on their computers.
During the 80 minutes of the show the FB page is updated almost everyminute with comments and questions about the music played by the DJ. Doing radio in the age of Facebookaverage of 60 to 80 comments on the wall, like a concert audience chatting about what it is listening to. Every daythe same dynamic takes place: when the programme begins, fans stop posting videos it is like when a concertbegins and the audience falls silent : they agree to enter into another dimension, the spectacular one.
The changeof behaviour on the FB fan page marks a ritual passage. Presenter and listeners recognise that they belong to thesame tribe and taking part in the show means celebrating the music they share. Music is the totem around whichpeople gather. Listeners would like to listen to more music, butwhen the show comes to an end, they can only continue to post other music on the FB wall and listen to the musicchosen by their peers.
A few minutes after the end of the show the RaiTunes team publishes a You Tube video playlist on FB, acollection of videos of all the songs played during the episode that has just ended. TwitterTwitter is frequently updated by the production team, to disseminate contents, news and You Tube playlistsavailable on other platforms.
Broadcast use only. WebsiteThe website of the programme contains the archive of all the episodes aired so far, available for listening toin streaming. During the show it is possible to see what is going on in the studio through a mobile webcamsituated on the roof. The webcam frames the presenter and his guests and is remote-controlled by the socialmedia manager, on the other side of the studio.
Case history 2: CaterpillarBroadcaster: Radio 2 Rai www. Conceived as a drive time talk show, it is the most listened-to programme on Italian radio in itstime slot. It provides an independent, tongue-in-cheek take on national and foreign current affairs. Phone talk plays akey role, occupying more than one third of the programme listeners, correspondents, politicians, artists, critics,etc. Tiziano BoniniPodcasts are easy to access from the Rai iPhone applicationSocial media activityBlogThe blog is updated every day with a synopsis of the latest show and videos of the music played.
It is usedas a multimedia archive of the programme. The morning after the show a podcast is available for do wnload also via Facebook. Thepresenters and authors of the programme usually join the conversation and interact directly with their fans. Fanscan also find relevant excerpts of the show a live music show, poetry by the correspondent Marco Ardemagni,satirical videos available on demand on the fan page, extra contents not aired during the show and extra contentnot suitable for radio video interviews from the correspondents, text notes, collection of photos of special events.
TwitterThe Caterpillar Twitter profile page, however, is more institutional and formal. It is only used as a one-tomanymedium, in order to disseminate to "followers" issues and links related to the programme. It looks more likea newspaper-style homepage.
Audience participationFacebook fans of the programme post comments both in real time during the show and after. Fanspublish an average of 7 to 15 wall posts every day. Listeners use Facebook not only to show whether they likesomething that has been broadcast or not, but also to publish news and links they find useful, either for theprogramme or for the "Caterpillar community".
The radio show and the Facebook page are both examples of networked media, since they rely heavily onuser generated content and comments. Every day the presenter tells the story of his life as if it was an22 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Doing radio in the age of Facebookaudio diary and shares his experiences with the listeners.
The second part of the programme is based on thephone calls of listeners who want to share their private stories. Fans and friends start to reply to thepresenter's call with comments and long posts, sharing private experiences of everyday life through Facebook. The author of theprogramme has accustomed his Facebook audience to expect one call every morning.
He opens the game withthe first post of the day, letting the listeners be the main characters of the play on the Facebook stage. During theweek of observation, the presenter's calls received between 25 and 80 comments, depending on the popularity ofthe topic.
Almost every day the author chooses one story among the best ones appeared on Facebook in the hoursbefore the show. Usually the first phone call of the day comes from a Facebook fan, then the presenter starts to take other livephone calls too.
Sometimes fans spontaneously reply to the call of the day by posting an excerpt of a film or asong that reminds them of the topic of the day on the Wall. The presenter normally edits and uses these contentsembedding them into the radio flow of the episode of the day.
One hour before the show the author posts a YouTube link to the video of the song that will be broadcast during his story. Facebook is conceived as a mine ofrough contents to be chosen, edited and then embedded into the radio production flow.
Comments, life stories,links to video or audio contents, are used by the author and his team as material for the production of theforthcoming show. During the show: fans and friends that are listening to the show through the web post comments about theprogramme on the wall.
After the show: fans keep on commenting the show that has just ended and start to post on the wall aphoto shot by them that can represent where they are in that very moment emotionally or geographically. During the observed week fans published an average of 6 to 20 posts per day on the wall of theprogramme, while the programme's team made between 3 and 5 posts per day.
RaiTunes uses the music links suggested by the audience,Caterpillar uses the news links suggested by the audience, Io Sono Qui uses the life stories told by the audienceand its content suggestions photos, video, songs. Tiziano BoniniSocial media Manifesto for radioEven if social media use has entered the production routine of radio only in the last two to three years,turning out to be a crucial tool, but quite often misunderstood and underestimated too, in the case historiesanalysed so far we can note many similar social media practices, which are both effective and innovative.
Thecomparative study reveals that broadcasters have finally started to understand the importance of social media innurturing their relation with audiences, like an umbilical cord connecting listeners to producers while the radio isoff. As a conclusion, we will try to put together the best practices discovered during the research and write a kin do f Social Media Manifesto, or more simply, a bare bones guide to the ideal social media strategy for broadcasters.
Dramaturgic structureSocial media management is an authorial and creative work. It is similar to the work of a theatre directorand has to do with storytelling. And storytelling has its rules. Social media spaces are not virtual at all, they arelively spaces where people attempt to show themselves at their best, making great efforts to perform one of thecharacters they would love to look like in real life.
As people's FB and TW profiles are nothing but storytellingperformances, programmes' profiles have to address issues of performance and storytelling too. The most successful Facebook and Twitter pages analysed so far all share a specific and clearlyrecognisable dramaturgic structure: frequent, cyclical and regular updates, every day. Facebook and Twitterprovide a flood of data, and posts and tweets will quickly flow off followers' screens.
Tweeting frequently will builda bigger following. Radio producers have to show listeners that they are always alive, always present, and theyhave to convince them to visit their page more often during the day. They have to build expectations among theirfollowers. Posting 15 tweets a day, but all in the same half hour, will not do , as most of the followers will not evensee them. Radio producers have to educate the public, making them feel that their page is constantly updatedwith valuable contents.
Second Act - During the show: InterActWe have noticed that successful work and presence on social media generates a continual flow ofcomments and updates from listeners during the show. Third Act — After the show: the show must go onSuccessful programmes are conceived like multimedia projects. When the radio show comes to an end,the programme continues on the web.
Cross media interactionConnect all the platforms and enforce communication flows between them. Doing radio in the age of Facebookin talk shows is to give the same importance to listener feedback, no matter which platform they came from email, phone call, sms, Facebook, Twitter. The debate around the issue of the day starts on social media, thencontinues on air: the presenters keep quoting comments made in real time on social networks. If people get used to knowing that what happens in the social mediasphere is valuable for the programmetoo, they will participate more.
Presenters and authors of the programme have to play at the listeners' level, and to build a fair and straightinteraction with them. Every time you post something on social media you should provide it with a context for itto be properly understood, and personalise information, adding your personal view or feeling.
Every podcast alertyou make has to be accompanied by a quick and personal synopsis of the programme contents, using a catchylanguage, not the cold and standardised language of marketing but the warmer one of true personal engagementwith it. Every post is a little story. Take advantage of General Intellect and realize Walter Benjamin's dreamSocial media are wonderful tools for nurturing and empowering the General Intellect 2.
Thanks to theirnetworked structure, social media seem to be making the dream of Brecht and Benjamin 3 come true: listenersbecoming authors UGC. Among your listeners lie hundreds of experts in different fields willing to take part incontent production. Caterpillar RAI perfectly outsources some reporting to the listeners and takes advantage ofcitizen journalism: its listeners publish suggestions about topics to be discussed and offer themselves as reportersfrom the place they live in.
Ask listeners to tweet their reports in real time while travelling. The minds of thelisteners, once connected through social media, can be very powerful and fast. Share the loveShare, quote, forward, retweet valuable contents. You need to give in order to get. ReferencesAnderson, Benedict La radio. Au microphone: Dr. Walter Benjamin. Tiziano BoniniVol. On the Higher Education context many changes are occurring due to the introduction of newlearning paradigms, many of them take advantage of web 2.
Social networks are currently being a do pted in many Higher Education communities as platformsto support the interaction among community members, taking advantage of the potential of thosenetworks to foster strong and meaningful relationships and support the awareness andconsolidation of group identity. This potential is being explored to promote new possibilities forteaching and learning that include new approaches such as the personal learning environments. This article addresses the potential that radio services have for Higher Education communities in aweb 2.
The article explores theperceptions that Aveiro academic members have about webradio potentialities in terms of sense ofbelonging creation and community cohesion. Keywords: webradio, university, community, social networks Radio as a service of a university communityThe incorporation of the radio in the university field, as well as their potential use by the academiccommunity, is not a recent phenomenon. The first initiative of this kind took place in at the University ofWisconsin Faus, College radio refers to a type of station that operates within an academic community and presentscharacteristics of community radio and educational ones.
These stations can be a global institutional projectinvolving the entire university community or an initiative from a more restricted entity faculty, student union,student-teacher of a specific subject… Sauls, 1. In fact, the phenomenon of college radio has evolved from the first experimental stations and, nowadays,has multiple configurations depending on the technological support broadcast FM, AM, web , audience of aclosed circuit to a wider community of listeners , aims education, outreach, entertainment or managementmodels Sauls, 2.
Characteristics that imply a programming for the college radio, different from commercial ones. This type of stations, to which also belong community radio stations, is characterized by uncommercialobjectives and social vocation. College radio has also a cohesive feature that, combined with the fact that itoperates within an academic community, gives it characteristics of community radio stations. Indeed the main goal of any college radio is to provide a service to the community, regardless of whetherit is a strictly academic community or a wider community Sauls, 2.
The purpose of this paper is to deepen into the perceptions that different audiences in the academiccommunity of Aveiro have about the potential of a college radio for the community cohesion and the promotionof a sense of belonging,. The underlying conception of the university webradio is here a platform with links tosocial networks, a space to share materials among professors-students or students-students, and other kind ofinteraction tools.
Radio transposition to the Internet offers lots of potentialities for the college stations. In fact, since the early college radio web initiatives that took place in the late 90's, thisphenomenon has been expanding. The radiomorphosis. A new paradigm based on the interactionThe mediamorphosis Fidler, in radio renewed the audio product with the addition of componentsinherent to digital system.
Thus, webradio set up a platform where converge multiple features of the conventional media with thosederived from its new multimedia essence like flexibility, ubiquity, synchronous and asynchronous communication,language and interactive multimedia.
The phenomenon of radiomorphosis Prata, was reflected primarily on the genres and on theinteraction. Two connected areas that establish the essence of the Internet medium and alter broadcastingconcept nature Cordeiro, From the perspective of interaction, the transfer from terrestrial radio to the web has strengthenedrelations with the user through new forms of relationship.
Interaction that has evolved from participation viaemail, an e-review of wiretapping tradicional model, to other nearish and instantaneous modes like socialnetworks. This is due to the return of listeners, interacting in relation tobroadcast content and also due to the release profile on portals, directories and virtual communities" Kischinhevsky, Radio 2.
An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe interaction of these listeners in multiple social networks establishes a relation between them and thepractitioner, a relationship which allows real-time feedback regarding the contents conveyed. This enablesconsolidation of collaborative media based on a single network that combines social networking and various webtools 2. In this context,prosumer figure rises up as a listener consumer and content producer at once Toffler The multimedia nature of the web allows to push the limits established between the radio and its listeners.
A relation marked by the fact that, as Moare stressed inBuffarah Junior, 6 there is no place on the net for passive recipients. The radio experience at that time,new concepts and gain time previously inaccessible devices " Ahmed, This new potential of Internet radio enables its use in a community college with multiple objectives.
The characteristics of this digital natives group can be considered convergent with the web broadcastingpotentiality: "nomadism, individualism, customization and personalization, exhibition and voyeurism, public andprivate space, memory of the generation on demand and a young profile in transformation" Rodrigues da Cunha, This convergence should not be dismissed on college radio. Metho do logyTo accomplish the aim of assessing the perceptions that Aveiro University members from now on AU have about webradio potential for academic community cohesion, an approach to its main audiences has beencarried out: students and professors.
An approach that a do pted different samples, analysis tool and metho do logy. The selection of both convenience samples was do ne according to different criteria. StudentsAccording to Rose and Lenski and Baker students are configured as the primary recipient of auniversity webradio. This is a circumstance of special interest from the point of view of webradios potential foruniversity community cohesion. A test sample of 78 individuals belonging to three different groups of students in the UA was chosen:communication graduate students masters and do ctorates , students coursing other subjects undergraduate andgraduate and foreign students-researchers in various scientific areas.
The selection of the second group of 18 undergraduate and graduate in other scientific areas was due tothe need for a sample of students from the AU whose media consumption, and ideas regarding the potential ofan university webradio, would not be influencied by their proximity to the field.
This sample could offer a differentperspective from communication students. The third group consisted on 15 foreign students-researchers all of them users of the residence of the UA as a representation of the relevance from this population in Aveiro university community. These three groups of students have in common their status as active users of social networks one ormore. This volume of hits in the sample reveals a prevailing culture of networks that could be transferred to theuniversity community realm.
Transfer that would enable the establishment of horizontal links between equals ,vertical students-professors and even of diagonal type with other audiences AU encouraging the universitycommunity cohesion. Figure 1. Frequency of use of social networks among students in the sampleThe questionnaire was chosen as the tool to understand the precepts that students have about thepotential of webradios for the university community.
Data was collected quantitatively and qualitatively throughdifferent types of questions depending on the type of response: open, closed, multiple choice, yes or no, Likertscale or hierarchy scale. The last part of the questionnaire focused on students preferences and perceptions about webradios andtheir ability to establish relationships with other community members, to strengthen the academic community andto foster a sense of belonging.
It also included other issues, regarding the use of social media, as other tools ofweb 2. In order to validate the questionnaire, acontrol group of five individuals belonging to the population under study was used, which allowed theimprovement of the formulation of some questions, as well as the overall coherence and organization of this datacollection tool.
ProfessorsProfessors are the other main public from college radio and, for this reason, it would be interesting to learnabout their perception about college radio possibilities to strengthen of the academic community. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsin the research as a another sample could offer a richer vision of students answers about college radio and itscharacteristics.
This selection is based on the assumption that, given their expertise, these professors would present abroad knowledge of new media and its possibilities, as well as offers a critical perspective of them. In this sense, to get as much information as possible about the idea that professors have over theuniversity webradios, in-depth interview was chosen as a research tool.
An interview of 20 minutes was structured around three blocks of questions: their perception of web radioas a casual user, their perception of the possibilities of this platform for the university community in general, andtheir perception of potentials that this webradio could provide for their specific teaching. The contributions madeby professors during the course of these interviews were recorded in audio format and revised.
This reviewallowed to draw ideas for the next phase of this research. Main resultsThe work developed allowed us to deepen into the precepts that, both students and professors, haveabout the benefits of a webradio implementation for the Aveiro university community. These results werestructured in two blocks according to the sample and metho do logical differences.
StudentsSurveyed students were particularly receptive to a webradio creation in the context of the Aveiro academycommunity. However, students are not so sure that this platform is a good way to establish links between the differentaudiences of university webradio. This increase reflects a balancebetween those who advocate the potential of university webradios to establish relationships with peers and thosewho seem critics.
University webradio platform interaction is a good form to establish relationships with professors32 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe students concept about the webradio platforms potential to meet people or to promote a closerrelationship with classmates is a reflection of their use of social networks.
So the fact of coursing the same degree,course or courses, do es not imply the need for online links. A completely different situation is reflected in relationships with professors. The possibility to establish such relationships between two different audiences from the university sphereallows to foresee the perception of university webradios as a cohesiveness element for this kind of community Figure 5. University webradio can promote university community cohesionAlthough most of the students do not totally agree with the creation a webradio platform to fosterinterpersonal interaction among peers or among professors, this trend is opposite when they are asked about itschances for community cohesion.
University webradio can promote the feeling of university community membershipThe same happens with the feeling of belonging. Most students think that the creation of the AU webradioincreases the identification of academic community members with the university. A similar percentage of those individuals also raises the possibility that this webradio becometheir favourite station. The sum of these realities would foster a community of loyal listeners that would stillremain at the basis of a constant feedback process: the fact that the radio becomes a favourite station favours anincreases of the pride of belonging, which in turn brings more listeners to the radio, etc.
However, despite their consideration of the university webradio for the cohesion of the academiccommunity and of its high consumption of social networks, only few students would incorporate them into aplatform of university webradio. Only a third of the sample 37 individuals thinks that it would be interesting toinclude a link to the social networks. ProfessorsLikewise students, professors interviewed considered interesting the implementation a webradio universityin Aveiro academic community.
This interest was justified by the need to give visibility to the activities of the university and to the type ofwork do ne by its researchers. Visibility of internal type, as a channel to support the dissemination of daily activitiesbeyond the university web with low reading among students , and external, to engage a broader community inthe events taking place in the academic institution.
Regarding the role of this webradio for the university community cohesion, all professors intervieweddefended its value for the creation of a sense of belonging. In fact, for them, any new form of connection betweenthe various groups of the university improves community cohesion. A connection powered in webradio by prideof belonging. This pride of belonging is based, as targeted by professors interviewed in: Providing the community with a new channel that gives information about the events developed in theframework of the university quickly and efficiently.
Professors indicated that, despite the many events heldat the UA, there is some opacity of information. Any initiative that promotes the flow of information isoptimal to increase this sense of belonging. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptions Informing society about research, experience or other events taking place in the AU or in collaborationwith it. The disclosure of the activities carried out in the university not only contributes to the creation, orenhancement, of brand image of the AU, but also increases the pride of belonging of its members.
In thissense, one of the professors interviewed referred to a television program of the AU which, despite the earlymorning broadcast, contributed to the identification of members of the community with the university. Fostering collaboration between community members in developing content for this radio.
This radiomanager should seek tools to review, create content, collaborate on the development of the grid etc. Thefact that students have a channel to whose contents they could collaborate is an element of interest for anidentification with the institution. Similarsituation occurs when the voices of leaders are familiar. Also, these professors believe that social networks are an essential element to make horizontal and verticalcommunication easy, and with it, to facilitate the cohesion of the university community.
Otherwise, any project is stillborn". In short, professors defend the appropriateness of a webradio university for the academic communitycohesion. In this defense, some respondents cited the RUM University of Minho radio, Portugal as an example ofa station that encourages pride of belonging among members of the university community.
These professors based on webradio cohesive role of a university the possibility of establishing a mediumto a large consumption by different audiences, sensitive to the tastes and interests of its members as well as aunique way of approaching what is happening in this community university. Both groups believe that the radio platform on the web can be interesting for the cohesion of theacademic community and foster a sense of belonging.
But students do not give too much value to this platform asa place to meet people or engage in closer relationships between classmates. Professors identified three issues which can build pride in belonging: to have a new channel of internalcommunication; the dissemination of University activities to the society and its recognition by the latter; and theinvolvement of different groups of the academic community in order to develop content for this radio.
When determining the type of social interaction tools that the webradio must configured, it is remarkablethat, while professors consider a "must" to create a platform strongly connected to social networks, only one thir do f the students consider it appropriate. In short, for students and professors, the implementation of a webradio university is an important elementto foster the university community both unity and communication a new channel of communication internal orexternal , by the participation in content production and with it, by the development of a sense of belonging.
Afeeling summed up in this sentence: "I am an official channel of the university and I have contributed to this". ReferencesAlbarran, Alan B. Radio Broadcasting Industry. Journal of Radio and Audio Media, Vol. New York: Semiotexte, pp. La Radio. Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Atlantic Journal of Comunication, Vol. Comunicar, Vol.
On the Horizont, Vol. Popular Music and Communication. Newbury Parl: Sage, pp. Joint Meetings of the Popular Culture Association. Studies in Popular Cultura, Vol. Braga: Universidade do Minho , pp. These new stations have emerged into a competitive broadcastingenvironment at a time of great technological change. New digital broadcasting platforms arebeginning to become established in parallel with Internet and mobile phone network audiodelivery mechanisms and, as a result, the future technical development of the medium as a wholeis in something of a state of flux.
At the heart of Community Radio is a range of diverse linkages and interactions with members ofindividual target communities. Within such a diverse broadcasting sector, how has the uptake ofso-called new media technologies developed, not just in terms of linear programme delivery, butalso with respect to podcasting, "listen again" services and the provision of additional text andvideo-based content? This paper summarises the degree of uptake of new media technologies by the Community Radio sector and examines some of the impacts that may result from their use, both concerning theconsumption and the production of broadcast content.
It concludes by suggesting how the futuredevelopment of Community Radio broadcasting in the UK may be influenced by the gradualacceptance of such new delivery platforms and the opportunities that may arise from suchacceptance. Keywords: radio, community radio, technologyIntroductionOver recent years, the impact of Internet-based and other so-called 'new technologies' on Community Radio services has become increasingly important in a wide variety of ways stretching beyond the obviousprovision of additional programme content delivery opportunities.
However, the arrival of the various newtechnologies is also something of a do uble-edged sword, bringing threats as well as opportunities to theCommunity Radio sector around the world. As the senior electronic medium, broadcast radio has a long history.
Evolving over time, radio hasexpanded both in terms of the number of stations broadcast and the nature of such stations. In a Europeancontext, following an early experimental period, most jurisdictions established public service broadcasting as thefoundation of their broadcast radio provision. Later, legislative and regulatory frameworks were adapted and PSBproviders found themselves subject of commercial competition. Lawrie Hallettregulatory frameworks have gradually begun to change again, this time to accommodate Community Radio , theincreasing variety of broadcast radio services reflecting the growing diversity of the societies in which they arebased.
At the same time, however, broadcast media infrastructure is also changing. Internally, the medium isadapting to the emergence of various digital radio broadcasting platforms, whilst externally, the effectiveness ofso-called new media platforms is also creating opportunities and threats for broadcasters. The result of thiscombination of circumstances is that proponents of Community Radio seeking to establish and cement the sectoras a robust and integral third-tier of radio broadcasting, are do ing so in an atmosphere of regulatory andtechnological uncertainty and flux.
Alongside the development of platforms specifically designed for broadcasting purposes, new mediatechnologies have also been impacting on the operation of broadcast radio. Not only do the Internet the mobilephone networks provide alternative platforms for the delivery of linear radio in real time, but they also provideopportunities for the delivery of radio which is directly linked to other types of media content, and which caninclude 'on-demand' elements that can be both time-shifted and non-linear, such as 'listen again' services andpodcast programmes.
The Role of Community Radio There are some underlying commonalities which define community radio, such as operation on a not forprofit basis, a commitment to accountability and to the involvement of members of the target community in theoperation and management of the service concerned. However, a key feature of the sector as a whole lies in itsdiversity, each station is inevitably "shaped by its environment and the distinct culture, history and reality of thecommunity it serves" Buckley et al.
Put another way, there is no such thing as a typical communityradio service. Fundamentally, Community Radio services exist to serve defined communities, of place, or of interest. Nevertheless, well over such stations have been givenpermission to broadcast since full-time licensing commenced in , and more are currently in the process ofbeing licensed. As well as stations broadcasting to geographical communities, there are stations serving a varietyof niche and specialist communities, including ethnic and religious minorities, children, retired people, militarygarrisons, universities and the arts.
This public do cument, which is made available on-line by theU. To achieve the various social gain, access and accountability objectives effectively, Community Radio services require a high degree of integration with the membership of their target communities. Such integrationtakes time and effort to develop and sustain.
In practical terms, effective and successful Community Radio services require underpinning structures and processes to help establish, sustain and broaden the range oflinkages and opportunities for interaction with their target communities. In the U. A Digital Dilemma? Although the world of radio broadcasting is changing fast, the vast majority of Community Radio servicesstill currently depend on analogue broadcast frequencies in order to deliver their programming to mass audiencesin a cost effective manner.
It is increasingly the case that other non-broadcast delivery methods, such as webstreamingand pod-casting, are also able to attract listeners. However, despite their ability to deliver both linearand non-linear content, as yet, such platforms can only be considered supplementary to the use of traditionalbroadcast technologies and they are certainly not yet universally available in the same way that content deliveryvia the analogue broadcasting do main has been for many years.
In parallel, the arrival of digital radio broadcasting, in all its various forms, has resulted in politicians andregulators attempting to drive forward a process of technological transition. A key problem for theCommunity Radio sector is that the various proposals put forward by European policy makers, have tended tofocus pre do minantly on the requirements of the commercial and PSB sectors, thereby leaving Community Radio broadcasters on the periphery with a variety of resultant problems and risks for the future.
Ask politicians or regulators about Community Radio and they won't always know what you are talkingabout. Ask the same people about PSB or commercial radio and not only will they know what you are talkingabout but, almost certainly, they will also have some pretty firm opinions on the subject, perhaps dictated by theirpolitical affiliations rather than by any deep interest and understanding of the specific issues involved!
Thecomparatively limited profile of Community Radio is, in part, due to the sector's relatively small-scale bothnumerically in terms of stations broadcasting, and in relation to the often deliberately limited geographical focusof such stations. However, it is also due to the fact that, in most jurisdictions, the sector is comparatively youngand therefore inevitably lacking in terms of track-record. It is a simple fact that, in addition to requiring a greatdeal of effort, relationships with politicians, regulators, funding bodies and partner organisations take aconsiderable length of time to establish and solidify.
The historical tendency of European policy-makers to prioritise the requirements of larger PSB andcommercial broadcasters is perhaps not surprising, given the far greater scale of these sectors in comparison toCommunity Radio broadcasting. The difficult for community broadcasters is that, in practice, this approach hasresulted in the promotion of multiplex digital platforms, such as DAB, which are simply not designed to cater forsmaller-scale local commercial and 'non-profit' Community Radio services, each with its own defined geographicalcoverage requirements.
Furthermore the current existence of a variety of jurisdiction-specific approaches to the'digital migration' of radio services in Europe creates uncertainty as to the eventual shape of the emergingtechnical and policy environment. Such political and regulatory involvement in the promotion of digital radio broadcasting, is in completecontrast to the virtual lack of such engagement with the various emerging non-broadcast delivery methods for'radio' programming content, using mobile phone networks and the Internet.
Historically, the digitalisationdiscourse as it relates to radio broadcasting has typically been characterised by considerable optimism on the partof those developing the various systems involved. Encouraged by such optimism, and by the promise ofadditional broadcasting capacity, politicians and regulators in many jurisdictions have driven forward theintroduction of new transmission platforms.
However, despite such official support, broadcasters and the publicECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Halletttend to remain somewhat wary of investing in the technology and conversely remain largely supportive oftraditional FM broadcasting in particular. In short, the problem with digital radio platforms is that they offer toofew advantages over the older, established, analogue technologies.
In the eyes of the general public, theperipheral advantages offered, including additional channel capacity and enhanced radio-text etc. With various digital transmission platforms now either operational or nearing launch, it remains impossibleto predict which option or options will eventually emerge as the accepted standards in the longer term.
Thisprocess of change is being further complicated by the increasing impacts of other, non-broadcast, audio deliveryplatforms. However, what is clear is that some digital radio broadcasting platforms are more flexible than othersand that some are best suited only to particular types of radio broadcasting.
As they exist today, none of thedigital broadcast radio platforms currently operating are able to provide a completely compatible alternative toanalogue radio broadcasting in all its various forms. Despite pressure for the 'digital migration' of many radio services, given the ubiquitous and flexible natureof FM broadcasting, it also seems likely that, in the majority of jurisdictions at least, its continued use forbroadcasting remains secure for the foreseeable future.
The 'opportunity cost' associated with continuing to useBand II FM for small-scale broadcasting services, even after larger stations have moved to alternative platforms,is minimal because the frequencies involved have wavelengths which make their use for telecommunicationsservices less than ideal. In addition, as both the AM and FM bands are internationally allocated for broadcasting and are likely to remain so for many years to come , there are limits as to what other uses they may be put to.
Recent suggestions by Ed Richards, the Chief Executive of Ofcom, that Band II could be used for so-called 'whitespace'devices Ofcom, may have some validity in the medium term, but, even if this proves to be the case,such devices could be interleaved to operate alongside traditional analogue broadcasting transmitters. Although the advent of digital radio transmission platforms offers at least the potential to help reduce theimbalance between supply and demand in terms of broadcast frequency availability, such developments certainly do not herald a complete end to frequency scarcity.
Inevitably therefore, competition for access to broadcastingspectrum rights will remain a barrier to entry for the foreseeable future and for many years to come. Assuming anongoing requirement for access to the airwaves, the question for Community Radio broadcasters is how best canthey obtain usage rights to a higher percentage of total available radio-broadcasting frequencies than is presentlythe case? If the sector is to be successful in such endeavours, it needs to continue to build up its circle of friends.
It will need to convince politicians and regulators of the strength of its case, something which may be easier saidthan do ne in the context of the strong, well organised lobbying capacity available to competing PSB andcommercial operators. In part because of such frequency scarcity issues, but also because of the various additional advantageswhich such technologies offer.
Community Radio has been quick to embrace a variety of Internet-based andmobile phone network technologies in order to enhance the delivery of their various services. However, when itcomes to the alternative of delivery of content via the Internet and other communications networks, the economicand operational models are somewhat different, for both broadcaster and listener alike.
For the purposes of thispaper, mobile phone networks can be considered a sub-set of Internet delivery, adding not only long-rangewireless connectivity and the delivery of web-based and other applications to portable devices, but also providingtheir own specific additional facilities such as text and picture messaging. In light of such developments and as new forms of mobile devices, such assmart-phones and 3G connected net-books, laptops and the tablet form PC, become increasingly prevalent, thedivide between the fixed line Internet and mobile telephony networks is becoming increasingly blurred.
Dealing with the broadcaster first, in some respects, the Internet provides additional opportunities that are,quite simply, beyond the capability of traditional broadcasting platforms. Staying with tools for broadcasters themselves, a further advantage of the Internet is its ability to deliverstreams of a station's live output. In other words, a copy of the station's traditional broadcast output can bedelivered in real-time to listeners who might be outside the coverage service area of the station's AM or FMtransmissions, or who might, for example, prefer to access such a stream while they work at an office computerterminal or from a laptop.
Because of the streaming nature of such services, their consumption requires that each listeneraccessing them has ongoing connectivity to the Internet for the duration of listening. Most flexible in terms of options for its consumption is the podcast. Those provided by radio broadcasterscan be regarded as being similar to those from other sources, although, because of their expertise and experiencein the sound medium, podcasts produced by radio professionals often have higher than average productionvalues.
The main advantage of the podcast over streaming is that it frees the user from the need for a constantconnection to the Internet. Typically, in a matter of a few seconds these can be do wnloaded to a computer, MP3player or mobile phone for later consumption and this process can be automated such that series programmingcontent is not missed by accident.
Once do wnloaded, not only can they be listened to at any time, but also, theycan then be easily archived and stored indefinitely by the user, for repeated listening at a later date. Copyrightissues aside, being typically provided in MP3 format, they can, at least in practical terms, also be copied foronward distribution to other potential listeners. The key point regarding these Internet delivery options is that, to a greater or lesser extent, each providesadditional flexibility in relation to the consumption of broadcast content.
Not only are the temporal constraints ofscheduling removed, but also, because content can be accessed outside the broadcast transmission service area ofthe station concerned, so too are geographical constraints on reception. Moreover, because, unlike traditionalbroadcasting, the Internet is fundamentally a bi-directional medium, it intrinsically enhances opportunities forinteraction between broadcasters and their audiences generally, and specifically in relation to the focus of thispaper, between Community Radio services and members of their target communities.
With a little effort,community-based broadcasters can learn a great deal about their target community through a simple analysis ofwho is listening to what and where on-line. Whilst on-line consumption of content cannot be assumed toECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Hallettduplicate that carried out via traditional broadcasting platforms, it can at least provide some useful qualitativedata for programme makers and station management.
The Limits of New TechnologiesAlthough the use of such non-broadcast platforms can provide broadcasters with additional flexibility, for avariety of reasons, they do not yet constitute a replacement for traditional broadcast platforms. To begin with,rather than being one-to-many broadcasting platforms, both the Internet as currently constituted for audiocontent and the mobile phone are primarily designed as one-to-one communications platforms. At present,mobile phone and mobile Internet platforms, lack universality and tend towards end-user cost models whichdiscourage the consumption of large amounts of data.
In addition, the take-up of such platforms can be lower inareas of relative socio-economic deprivation, which are often the focus of Community Radio services. However, itis quite clear that, as the carrying capacity of mobile phone networks expands and as improved methods ofmobile Internet delivery, such as WiMax, are implemented, this situation will change for the better.
In somejurisdictions "all-you-can-eat" data tariffs are already becoming available at a relatively reasonable cost althoughconnectivity and capacity both remain potential stumbling blocks to reliable portable operation. Despite variouslimitations, convergence between broadcasting and communications platforms is already happening and, as aresult, after a long period of relative inertia, radio broadcasting is currently being exposed to the challenges of aperiod of considerable ongoing change.
Despite its various advantages and benefits for broadcasters, whatever else it may be, the Internet is mostdefinitely not a broadcast medium, that is to say, it is not a one-to-many medium, free at the point ofconsumption. At least in technical terms, once a content stream has been made available,where in the world it is consumed becomes largely irrelevant although, for some forms of content at least, theremay be financial implications related to copyright issues.
While it may be technically possible for individualjurisdictions to block or otherwise make unavailable specific types of content or particular web addresses, suchtechniques are rarely applied to anything other than overtly sexually explicit materials and, in some moreauthoritarian regimes, particular types of political content. The benefits of increased geographical reach, do however come at a price.
Broadcasters using the Internetare faced with a marginal cost per each additional listener to the data-stream concerned. In other words, becausecosts to the broadcaster are directly related to the total amount of data being delivered by it, the greater theaverage number of listeners, and the longer they listen, the greater the total cost to the broadcaster. Morespecifically, it is the concurrent total number of listeners which can have the greatest impact upon streamingcosts.
Here it is the cost of overall capacity provision rather than the actual cost of data delivery which is the issue. The greater the potential number of concurrent streams that provision is made for, the greater the cost to thebroadcaster. Thus, in a financial sense at least, popular Internet broadcasters really can become victims of theirown success! The issue of limitations within the network structure and the transmission protocols of the Internet an do ther IP-based networks is beyond the scope of this paper.
However, it is worth noting that although there areways to ameliorate the marginal cost per additional listener for example though the use of multi-cast protocolswhere available, or by employing torrent-like streams , for smaller broadcasters, and for reasons of economies ofscale, such approaches are likely to be impractical, or at best yield only marginally beneficial economic gains. A potential problem for small-scale broadcasters in some jurisdictions is the issue of net-neutrality.
Inthose countries where telecommunications companies and Internet service providers have been allowed to give44 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Inareas where network infrastructure is well-developed, this issue may not be too serious a problem, as even highquality audio streams occupy a relatively small amount of bandwidth when compared to either standard or highdefinition video streams. However, where network capacity is limited, Community Radio services could find theirstreams disrupted by parallel demand for priority traffic.
A further issue confronting broadcasters when using the Internet as a delivery platform is its lack ofuniversality when compared to traditional broadcasting. To begin with, the required broad-band Internetconnection is by no means universal, especially within less economically prosperous communities. Even where abroad-band connection is present, listening to audio streams on a computer is one thing, but delivering thatstream to elsewhere in the home or office is quite another.
Even more difficult is the delivery of live streaming content tomobile and portable devices. Although it is theoretically possible to receive such material via 3G and other highcapacitymobile phone data networks, at present such networks lack robust capacity, and are particularly bad atdelivering linear content to a device on the move.
Extrapolating from recent history, there seems very little do ubt that the capacity of fixed and mobilenetworks will continue to increase and that, conversely, the associated costs of such distribution are likely todecrease. However, for the present, although the Internet is already expanding the delivery options forCommunity Radio services, specifically in relation to streamed audio many of the theoretical advantages it offersare currently somewhat hampered by technical and capacity network infrastructure limitations and, for mobileusers, the similar content capacity limitations found in associated mobile phone networks.
ConclusionsDigital delivery methods are already impacting on the activities of Community Radio broadcasters, but notin the way that might have been supposed a decade or so ago. In the United King do m at least, the sector'sinterest in taking up digital radio broadcasting opportunities has been almost non-existent, but, conversely, thevast majority of community stations have already embraced considerable use of web-based digital deliveryopportunities to supplement their traditional analogue broadcasting output.
On the broadcast radio front, recognising the various benefits of FM, the community radio sector islobbying for greater access to Band II spectrum, if and when other PSB and commercial broadcasters arepersuaded to give up simulcasting and switch their broadcasting output to digital platforms.
The UK broadcastregulator, Ofcom has long since accepted that an increase in Community Radio provision on FM could be oneoutcome of any move of larger services to alternative digital platforms, such as DAB:In time, it is possible that changes such as an end to simulcasting of existing radio services on analogue anddigital platforms could free-up spectrum that will create more space for new community radio stations.
Ofcom, 28 There is however an element of risk associated with such an approach to the long-term expansion ofCommunity Radio provision. Specifically, there remains no guarantee that digital migration will be implementedand without it access to additional FM spectrum cannot be provided.
On the other hand, should digital migrationbe achieved for the majority of radio stations, then community broadcasters remaining on FM could findthemselves in what has by then become an 'analogue backwater' which the majority of potential listeners are nolonger inclined to explore. Lawrie HallettNevertheless, given the largely inappropriate nature of existing operaional digital radio broadcastingplatforms for community radio services, it is difficult to envisage how else the sector might currently approach thisissue.
That said, the current limitations of digital radio broadcasting are, to a large extent, technology specific andemerging second generation platforms, such as Digital Radio Mondiale DRM and the more advanced DRM Plusstandard, have at least the potential to be more relevant to the needs of community broadcasters, assuming thatthey do eventually become an integral part of the radio broadcasting landscape.
In practical terms, the potential emergence of digital radio platforms suitable for use by independentsmall-scale remains, at best, some years off. Whilst it would be prudent for community broadcasters not todismiss the future potential of such systems, continuing to exploit technologies which provide immediate benefitshas to remain the priority. The approach of utilising web-based digital delivery methods, accessible throughcomputers and mobile devices, is already providing increased flexibility and the ability to reach out to communitydiasporas which are not within the coverage of traditional analogue broadcasts.
The Internet and associated new technologies certainly offer some clear benefits for both Community Radio broadcasters and for members of their target communities. For Community Radio , in addition toopportunities for increased operational efficiency and flexibility, the fundamental impacts of the variousdevelopments set out in this paper are three-fold.
In addition, such networks providenumerous opportunities for interaction, which traditional broadcast platforms simply cannot provide.
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Pennsylvania ,  Rhode Island,  and West Virginia were able to pass legislation legalizing sports betting within their states. Some states must still organize which department will oversee state-regulated sportsbooks, most are choosing between their respective gambling commissions or lottery boards — until then no wagers can be legally taken.
Pennsylvania became the seventh state to legalize sports betting when the state had regulations for sports betting in place in August Online sports betting in Pennsylvania began on May 28, when SugarHouse Casino launched an online sports betting app. On November 21, , Rhode Island became the eighth state to legalize sports betting, with Twin River Casino in Lincoln opening the first sportsbook in the state.
In , several states, including Indiana , Iowa , Montana , and Tennessee , legalized sports betting. Indiana and Montana permit brick-and-mortar locations such as casinos but Tennessee restricts sports betting to being online only. The positions of the four major American sports leagues representing American football , baseball , basketball , and ice hockey have become more complex since their decision to embrace daily fantasy sports DFS in , which are described by those within the industry as "almost identical to a casino" in nature.
With the contention by critics that such activities blur the lines between gambling and fantasy sports, the endorsement of all four major sports leagues and many individual franchises provided a marked contrast to their positions on betting.
While the National Basketball Association NBA was once active in preventing sports betting law relaxation, current NBA Commissioner Adam Silver became the first major sports leader to break from previous administrative opposition to gambling. In he stated in a New York Times op-ed, "I believe that sports betting should be brought out of the underground and into the sunlight where it can be appropriately monitored and regulated.
Major League Baseball MLB Commissioner Rob Manfred has also advocated the league changing its stance on sports betting, with both Manfred and Silver noting that the scale of illegal sports betting makes opposition to betting meaningless. He also stated a willingness to "try to shape" any future legislation at federal level. This was noted as a marked contrast to former Commissioner of the MLB Bud Selig , with Manfred going beyond tacit approval and stating, "There is this buzz out there in terms of people feeling that there may be an opportunity here for additional legalized sports betting.
The National Football League NFL remains the only sports league to maintain public opposition to sports betting, however critics have noted that with the move of the Oakland Raiders relocation to Las Vegas in , the NFL has positioned itself for legalization, while simultaneously contradicting its long-held position that sports betting in NFL markets would lead to potential match-fixing. The NHL was the first major professional league to place a team in Nevada, when the expansion Vegas Golden Knights took the ice in since then the league has signed sponsorship agreements with William Hill and MGM Resorts International that include betting partnerships and access to in-play data.
Other clubs in states with legal sports gambling, such as the New Jersey Devils and Philadelphia Flyers , also have similar sponsorships with bookmakers. Commissioner Don Garber has stated about sports gambling, " We have a project going on now to really dig in deeply and understand it. The American Gaming Association stated in June , that a coalition will advocate for the repeal of the United States' sports betting ban.
In February , a lobbying document surfaced advocating a new position held by the NBA and MLB — that sports leagues should be financially compensated for betting activity. The Football Association , the governing body for association football in England , has imposed football betting bans on all individuals involved in the sport—players, managers, match officials, and club staff.
The scope of these bans varies based on level of the English football pyramid. The following individuals are banned from betting on any football-related matter worldwide, or providing inside information to any individual who can reasonably be assumed to use said information for betting purposes:.
Individuals who are associated at clubs at lower levels of the men's or women's league systems, plus match officials at FA Level 4 or below, are only banned with respect to the match or competition in which they are involved or can influence, and also to the league in which they participate. All individuals are banned from advertising or promoting any football betting activity in which FA regulations prohibit them from engaging.
This, however, only applies to individuals in their personal capacities. For example, if a club is sponsored by a betting company and said company places its logo on the club's kit, the team's players are not in violation of the betting rules. The World Baseball Softball Confederation , the international governing body for baseball and softball , has betting rules similar to those of Major League Baseball. Participants in any WBSC-sanctioned event are banned from betting on the following: .
The betting ban, as in the case of The FA's rules outlined above, also extends to providing inside information that the tipper could reasonably believe will be used to bet on a WBSC event. The International Cricket Council imposes a blanket ban on what it calls "corrupt conduct" by anyone it defines as a "participant". The ICC shares anti-corruption jurisdiction with national cricket federations, all of which have anti-corruption rules substantially identical to those of the ICC.
The ICC has elaborate mechanisms for determining whether it or a national federation will take action under the relevant anti-corruption code. In general, the ICC has either exclusive or priority jurisdiction over international matches, while national federations have responsibility for actions relating only to domestic matches. The ICC code bans the following activities with regard to any international match, whether or not the participant had any involvement in said match, or any possible means of influencing the outcome:.
This series would go down as one of the biggest sports scandals of all time. All eight players were banned from playing professional baseball for the rest of their lives. The rule against gambling in baseball is known as "Rule 21," which is publicly posted on dugout walls and states: "Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever on any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible.
For instance, Mickey Mantle and Willie Mays were both banned from baseball in after taking jobs as casino greeters which would have expelled them from the Hall of Fame had it been allowed to stand ; they were reinstated two years later. Only Rose has yet to be reinstated. A betting scandal between the Massillon Tigers and Canton Bulldogs , two of the top teams in professional American football in the early s, led to the demise of "big-money" professional football for several years.
Modern research has suggested that the claims of betting were unsubstantiated. On December 7, the San Francisco 49ers overcame a halftime deficit of 28 points in what became the greatest regular season comeback victory in NFL regular season history.
Rosenthal was able to retain these winnings despite the final outcome of the game due to gambling regulations previously established by the NAGRA. The Cronje Affair was an India-South Africa Cricket match fixing scandal that went public in [ citation needed ] t began in when the-then captain of the South African national cricket team, Hansie Cronje , was convinced by Mukesh "John" Gupta, an Indian bookmaker, to throw a match during a Test in Kanpur, India.
The scheme was discovered when Delhi police recorded illegal dealings between Indian bookmaker Sanjay Chawla and Cronje. Corruption in tennis has been long considered as issue. In and , Koellerer was banned for six months due to his bad behavior. In addition, in August , he facilitated betting by placing odds for matches and had links for placing bets. Machine learning models can make predictions in real time based on data from numerous disparate sources, such as player performance, weather, fan sentiment, etc.
Some models have shown accuracy slightly higher than domain experts. Media related to Sports betting at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 31 January This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details.
July Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: Bookmaker. Sports betting legal. Sports betting illegal. Arbitrage betting Betting pool Financial betting Friendly political wager Parimutuel betting Point shaving Sports betting systems Statistical association football predictions Virtual sports.
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Retrieved November 2, Penn Live. Retrieved July 2, October 26, March 30, July 19, March 15, Retrieved October 2, A quick recap of Oliver Luck on radio row. Gamblers gamble more money to try to win back money that they have lost and some gamble to relieve feelings of helplessness and anxiety.
In the United Kingdom, the Advertising Standards Authority has censured several betting firms for advertisements disguised as news articles suggesting falsely a person had cleared debts and paid for medical expenses by online gambling. The firms face possible fines. A study of 32 countries found that the greater the amount of gambling activity in a given country, the more volatile that country's stock market prices are.
Gamblers exhibit a number of cognitive and motivational biases that distort the perceived odds of events and that influence their preferences for gambles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wagering of money on a game of chance or event with an uncertain outcome. For other uses, see Gamble disambiguation , Gambler disambiguation , Betting disambiguation , and Bets disambiguation.
Main article: Gambling in the United States. Main article: Gambling law. Main article: Table game. Main article: Fixed-odds betting. Main article: Parimutuel betting. Main article: Sports betting. Main article: Virtual sports. Main article: Arbitrage betting. Main article: Betting strategy. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
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Winchester Books. A History of Japan. London: Psychology Press published Retrieved 6 April Many Japanese are naturally prone to gambling; in the old Kyoto court the vice was rife, and in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries samurai would often stake their arms, armour, and horse trappings on a cast of the dice, even on the eve of a battle, and so have to go into action in incomplete panoplies, and sometimes with no armour at all.
In Tokugawa times the vice did not reach this extent among the samurai, but it became common in Yedo and continued to be so throughout the history of the city. Sports and Games of Medieval Cultures. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Manchester UP, Manchester U. Press, Gambling in California. California State Library. March Archived from the original on 8 October VII, Sec. Retrieved 5 September Concept Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 20 July Cass To settle your conscience a layman's guide to Catholic moral theology.
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Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Management Science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. See: Gambling games. Gambling mathematics Mathematics of bookmaking Poker probability. See: Gambling terminology. Casino game Game of chance Game of skill List of bets Problem gambling. Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject. Categories : Gambling. Hidden categories: Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use dmy dates from August All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from August Articles containing Arabic-language text Articles that may contain original research from August All articles that may contain original research Articles with unsourced statements from November Commons category link from Wikidata Articles with Curlie links Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with HDS identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.
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