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And their marriage tradition is quite interesting and hysterical. And the bridegroom has to stand till his father in law asks him to sit. Finally the bride is sent along with him after 6 long months on a cow. Girls what do you say??? That afternoon we met a person named Vinay Kumar. This bloke is an all rounder. He is a teacher, businessman real estate and hotel business , innovator, Ayurvedic Doctor and an expert at Yoga. We sat with him for 2 hours.

And the whole conversation was rather more interesting than a movie,that our focus remained undiminished listening to him. Unfortunately we forgot to get a recorder the same day. I will narrate u the highlights of the conversation that took place: It seems his grandfather learnt this cryptic art and dedicated his whole life and wealth trying to convert Copper to Gold.

Finally he made it, but met an untimely death without revealing the alchemy he mastered. This person is now continuing the same job reading the books written by his grandfather trying to unravel the intriguing art. He said it took him 25 days to read one page. He also made it a point to mention centuries old ayurvedic treatments which included healing a person who has suffered cardiac arrest.

Take two lemons and extract some juice and inject required quantity of mercury into it according the height of the person and place them in front him. He said the lemons would fly up to his chest and dance till the heart attack is cured. And the list of primitive ways of finding the cure for every illness and health related complications is unending. He said all these ayurvedic plants, saints, etc are present in Srisailam forests.

He also told about an interesting climber named thippudu thigalu swirling creeper. It appears that once if our feet touch them, we will roam around the forest for 15 days without knowing ourselves. Are you ready? Suddenly we shivered for a while and it took a while for us to shed the fear. All this would seem as sheer superstition and we may find no good enough a reason to believe in it.

He told us that there is some kajal the same one which we see on the eyes of katikaparlu when applied to the eyes we can scan everything i. And it was no surprise that he works for the archeology department. Then he called me back and asked if my defective eyesight was 6. I said its 8. He suggested me some herbal medicine. Of course, he poured out suggestions on how Meraj and Pavan should grow fat.

But after the whole conversation, I was bit excited and felt like visiting Srisailem and the forests over there once. I had been wishing to write one from long time. Finally, the day has beckoned I am doing B. Tech, 3 year in Bits-pilani. From my first year, I always aspired to do an rd. And a day arrived when I was left with much disappointment for I was deprived of a positive reply from everyone. But much to my amusement and surprise, I received 2 mails the same night, one from Anil Gupta Sir, IIM A blessing me with an opportunity to do a social internship in Andhra Pradesh villages with a motive to uplift the grass root innovators www.

The other one was from a start up firm named Daily Dump which was ready to provide an internship with a stipend of Rs. Concentrate on your career. And as Sir was willing to allow my friends to partner me in my social initiative, I sensed an amazing chance for our juniors to get well acquainted with the knowhow of the social conscience and this experience would help them in understanding the villagers and the way to go about dealing with them.

Somehow I managed to convince 13 of my juniors and friends for the internship with the help of many. But the dismal thing was the fact that I was the only girl among them. As the project was conceived by me, I had to start even though my father was not interested to send. The day before I called my intermediate friend, Meraj and mentioned about the internship and she said she would love to join me. Thus started the odyssey…. People here believe that the first Lotus was born here and hence named it as Kamalapuram.

This is an agency area and has a huge paper factory named BILT which is 40 years old. She also runs a Rural Bridge Camp where in the drop outs are collected and trained in 10 months to reach their main stream education. We have also met a reputed Ayurvedic Doctor named Dr.

Devayya who discussed the following medicinal practices:? This helps to cure bleeding from the gums. The germinated seeds are dried and grinded. This mixture is grinded and honey is added and made into small balls and taken regularly. Few medicinal plants found during Biodiversity competition are: 1. The juice of Munaga leaves when given to cattle reduces their stomach ache.

Thondiyala: This place which is 8km from Kamalapuram is a typical village where in all the houses are made up of just mud and wood. These schedule tribes called adhivasulu still practice the age old traditions in all walks of their life like storing the grains in a container called Ghumma.

We met a person named Kanthayya who is the oldest learned man. They used to cultivated crops like Jonnalu, Sajjalu. Explaining about the then agricultural practices l Few pest repellants he mentioned are Kodise rotte stem ,Vishamushti which are mixed in irrigation water. The air which flows into the field comes in contact with the leaves of this plant and acquires a special characteristic of destroying the pests inside the field.

Ippa Flowers l are used for preparing alcohol and are given as prasadham in Bhadrachalam. Ippa seeds are used for preparing oil which is used for cooking, lightening and for hair. He also mentioned the procedure Few medicinal plants he mentioned are lJeedi seeds are heated and the acid that comes out is applied to cure the wounds. Festivals: Vithu pandaga: Celebrated just before planting the seeds, praying to their goddess Sammaka-Sarakka for the prosperity of their agriculture.

Pachha pandaga: Celebrated by thanking their god for a good beginning of their agriculture. Problems: Briefing their problems they told that they have no good transportation, education ,health facilities. Despite having sufficient underground water resources they rely mostly on rain water as they could not afford for digging bores. Mallurigutta: This is a hilly area as the name itself indicates, located 10 kms from Kamalapuram. Lakshmi Narasimha Swami temple is located on the top of this Hemalaya hill, amidst a thick forest which occupies around 5km radius.

The priest of the temple narrated the story behind the establishment of it. The story is as follows: During 2nd century B. One night he heard a voice in his sleep which ordered him to stop conquering places and killing people and asked him to dig the mountain at a place where bright light appears at Brahma Muhurtham to find him Lakshmi Narasimha swami.

Thus the temple was established and is believed that the problems of the people who come over there would be solved. Situated at the beginning of the temple and inside the forest there is small water flow which comes from mountains. This water is said to be pure and cures all the diseases as it crosses the roots of many herbal plants. Also this temple has a board which explains the list of all herbal plants that could be found in the forest. RegulaGudam: This is a small village with around 38 families located 5km from kamalapuram.

These Adhivasis had migrated from Chattisgadh forest and are called RasaKoyas. Their language is called Gondi. They rely mostly on the forest for food. They go for hunting animals like Rabits, dhuppalu, forest pigs, udumulu they catch these with the help of wild dogs , deers with the help of bow and arrow. They use the stem of kanuga trees for brushing. The women over here wear lungis instead of sarees.

And the marriage here takes place without any dowry. The festivals they celebrate here are Kothala Pandaga and Ginjala Pandaga and they worship goddess called Muthyalamma. This small village has a school named Alter Little School and the villagers here have around acres of land which they cultivate and consume among themselves.

They have only one well from where they get the drinking water. They rely on rain water for their irrigation. And this village has absolutely no electricity and transportation facilities. Despite of all these problems they are reluctant to come from this place. Oriya Colony: This colony is in the town itself.

These people have migrated from Chattisgadh in for some labour work. Since then most of them settled here and became accustomed with Hindu Culture and traditions. Few interesting practices they follow are: Before every Dasara they cut the trunk of burugu tree in the forest and get it to the village without putting it down anywhere.

They hope this tree would bring prosperity in their lives. It consists of Lambadas who migrated from suryapet years before. Somaji, a 85year old person is the founder of this Thanda. He studied till 4th class in those days of Nizams rule. This person fought with Nizams and distributed acres of land to all his people.

Thus even today everyone in the Thanda praises his selflessness and gives him utmost respect. The marriage of Lambadas used to take place for around 6 months. They celebrate 4 festivals in between 1. Vayubhandhe- The bridegroom is made to sit and take bath amidst 4 pots which are put in 4 corners of the house. Ghota: Panakam is made and distributed to the whole village 3.

Ghot: During this festival a sheep is sacrificed in the name of God and the meat is distributed to all families in the village. The following are the festivals they celebrate: 1. Panidhadhi: This is the biggest festival they celebrate. Whole villagers fix a date every 3 years and celebrate this festival.

Seethala: During this festival animals are made to cross a tree under which 7 stones are put. Thus they believe that their cattle would be healthy. Bathakamma:This is a 9 day festival during which wheat seeds are germinated and the finally left into the lakes. They celebrate this for the prosperity of their fields. Dress: The Lambadas have a typical dress. Of course most of them are not wearing this dress these days. Bangles: These bangles are made up of ivory. During marriage the bangles worn on the forearm are shifted to the upper arm and new bangles are worn again on the forearm.

The bangles worn on the upper arm would be removed if her husband dies. Chunni: This is beautifully decorated with mirrors all around and these mirrors will be removed if her husband expires. Kadiyam : This is worn during marriage to the right leg of the bride. They also have typical ornaments which are made up of gold, copper and silver. Also most of the scheduled tribes put designs on their skin with pachabottu which is a kind of style for them.

On the last day we met an interesting person named Vinay Kumar. This person does real estate business, hotel business; he is a teacher and also an expert in Ayurvedham. These are few interesting things he mentioned with us: 1. For body pains to be cured vamu should be heated and mixed with honey and should be applied.

For a person who took poison a small drop of ingalikam powder when kept on this tongue would oust everything present in his stomach. For kids who always cry for food- he said there will be few insects which eat away the food given to the kid and these can be removed by applying the juice of somidi leaves like oil.

He also mentioned about a small innovation which was exhibited during science fair by his children. And that is: A copper wire is to be wound to an iron pulley and during one pull of the pulley we can generate electricity that can be stored and used for hours. We have also conducted a bio diversity competition and had good response from the children in the village. The following are few medicinal plants we heard about: 1. Body pains-Adavi vankayalu or jilledi milk 2.

For black hair-Cows toilet or mudhamandaram leaves 3. For allergy- juice of pamodia leaves should be applied. Fracture- Modhuga leaves juice is to be applied. Goru chittu- milk from salendra leaves is to be applied. Neredi fruits will help to melt the stones present in the kidneys. For any cattle diseases usually indragadda leaves juice is applied.

June to 19 June, created a platform for us to gain very immense and precious knowledge hidden in th. We, the engineering students of BITS-Pilani collected such knowledge which helps NIF to create a database of village knowledge and find solutions to some of the problems faced by villagers. I Patnaik shanthikiran along with Krishna Pavan and Ram Naresh were allotted Chityala village vaddikotthepalli, thorrur mandal to know the village knowledge.

It took 3 days to scan and get to know some important practices in the village which were about to fade from this village life. This village is beautifully surrounded by agricultural lands and two rivers on both sides east and west to quench the thirst of farming lands. Traditional Practices Most of the traditional practices of this village are Medical Practices and then comes the agricultural practices and some cultural practices.

Almost all the recordings are done from the very old people of the village and this work really made us happy as the knowledge that we have collected from them would have got extinct if we would not have recorded and the happiness is because the purpose of our stay at chityala is solved. Baalinthalaku:[Given by Avula Somakka] Elthuru, thogara madhuvu, gummudu chakka, chennangi, uppu chakka all should be mixed ,boiled,crushed and juice is extracted from it.

This helps them in avoiding non-functioning of limbs. Later pipperlu, vayumaralu, kakkeroni, manchi miryalu, sonthi, modi, suthikaaya maathara, baironi, chinthamani should be mixed and powder of 5mg shoulg be taken in the morning and night everyday.

Diet: kandipappu, chinthakaaya, tomato etc should be used. Ellipaaya kaaram should be used with rice and godhuma rotte. Avoid oil and use Ghee if necessary. If Baalintharaalu gets fever: Dhumpa raastham chakka should be rubbed against stone and juice is taken. Palugu stone is heated and put in this juice and allow it to boil. Fever, Cold and Cough:[Given by Ravula ShashiRekha] Vaamu, turmeric, salt, nalla vusiri, china paapidi veru, mulkeru should be powdered, dried and stored in bottles.

Dosage: morning 5gm For High fever: Nalla mulkeru puvvulu, Thimmeru puvvulu should be taken and juice is extracted by crushing them in cloth. This is mixed with nalla usiri veru, china papideru, karkaya, turmeric and salt. Impotency:[Given by Rapolu Raghavulu] Marri chettu vudalu should be taken and take ash of it and mix with singapuri vudi strike against stone and collect juice. This is filtered and mixed in Naatu saara liquor.

This functions like ozomen. Also use Nalla vusiri, salt, turmeric powder and all should be mixed and made like tablets. Use this for 7 days morning, afternoon and night. Use gm of water. This should be filtered and taken weekly once should not be stored Diet: 1 day: vari, paccha jonna rotte, kudumu etc st. B Ubbu Kamerlu: The process is same like the above but use aamadaala leaves instead of kaakarakaya leaves.

C Katte kaamarlu: Symptoms: fever at nights, body becomes thin and dry, no aakali. Any of the above two treatments can be used. For free Urine remove pain and burning sensation Hamsapaada leaf also called cheppa thatta leaf juice should be extracted, add sugar and take 20gms of the mixture orally. Dosage: daily morning for 3 days. Vaapu rogam: Gunta galjeru leaf, all parts of neela gurimidi plant in equal proportions should be boiled in water, mix pothu thatigola ash and drink.

Mix some of this liquid in bathing water also. Female muttushula bayisthayye mundhu ocche noppi : Gadidha ganapaku should be dried in shade, extract juice from it, take half tea spoon of this liquid and add 5gm of salt. Kaaki donda gadda root should be dried and powdered.

Mix this powder in milk and take in the morning orally. Leaves of Paathala bhairavi tree should be crushed and mixed with water to make it like a bread piece, add sugar and take 3 times daily. Diet: leafy vegetables,salt and mirchi should be taken less, ganji vanchani annam for 3 days.

Breathing problems: Salt,nadella and vomu are mixed and extract juice from it. Take this liquid orally. Ganeria: Hamsapaada leaf should be finely crushed and that juice is boiled with red hot palugu stone. This liquid is iltered and take orally for 3 days. Apply this mixture to penis and let it free for air. Female kusuma rogaalu: White guggilam should be finely crushed and juice is boiled till the foam is removed seven times 7 times pongaali.

Take this liquid and add navabothu patiki bellam powder in it. Also, crush roots of pindi poola tree and boil it with red hot palugu stone and take orally for 3 days. And boil muduru vepa chettu till it becomes red and store it in matti gariga. Vedi chesthe: Mosaambaru 3 thula , nalla bellam 3 thula should be mixed and use this paste like tablets in the morning, afternoon and in the evening. Paralysis: Gorita leaves or Ganuga leaves 0.

After allowing it to cool filter and massage body with it 3 time a day. Impotency treatment: Marati moggalu, dhumpa raastam, kalinga raastam, naaga kesaraalu, gorojanam, kumkuma puvvu and jaajikaaya should be taken in equal proportions, crush and mix it in honey and prepare like a black paste and use 3 times a day.

Orally take ginger paste 50gms early in the morning padakadupuna Take naanapettina manchi sanagalu in mornings and evenings daily. Scorpion bite: The jeebili gulumu of buffalo should be applied on the place where scorpion bites. MOTA: Used in villages for getting water from wells for agricultural practices. Photographs are available. Photograph available 3. The photographs are with R. Venkat Ranga Reddy and working can be obtained from R.

Srinivas reddy of chityala village. A variety of leaves are obtained and finally prizes sketch pen sets are given to the winners. The leaves are as follows: 1. Mulka kaaya: All breathing problems 4. Gunta Galjeru: Boiled with oil and applied to hair for strong and black hair 5.

Jilledu: to easily remove thorns from body and also apply along with nuvvula nune to limbs to remove pains 6. Utthareni : boil this in nuvvula nune and apply externally to belly to reduce the size. Borra thagguthundi 7. Days early in the morning. Picchaaku: apply the crushed leaf for limb dislocation and pains. Banthi marigold : applied for bee bites. Raale puvvu pickle 2. Budda gaashe pickle These pickles were really tasty and have some good medicinal values.

Most important point to be noted here was that she fed those pickles and food for us with her hands. Though many people in the village co-operated and gave valuable suggestions and practices, we chose him because of his habit of sharing knowledge with the society just for the sake of survival of the knowledge and not for his own, also the main theme of our project. He said he is also in search of people like us to record his knowledge without getting faded out along with time.

It is really fortunate that we went to him in his very old age and almost forgetting everything. Out of all the people we met in this village Raghavulu deserves more than this appreciation and so we did. This will definitely help our purpose and let us know the information about many such unexplored things in the village.

Nenala Nelakuduru Mandal A muslim Guy very famous for treating any kind of fractures. By giving publicity our objective reaches deep into the minds of the people and obviously our purpose will get deep into the hearts of the people which will help all of us in getting into a better network.

Publicity in the form of banners or posters regarding the village knowledge register and our goals which later leads to mouth publicity and get settled well within the villagers. People from any village feel comfortable whenever there is someone to listen to their problems. It will be better if we record them too and submit to district collectorate with some feasible suggestions. Its really a great feeling to be part of this internship.

It is for the first time that we had scouted for a social cause and gained some traditional knowledge and village experience. Its really worth more than just a social internship with our coordinator Brigadier P. Ganesham who made this tour very interesting and exciting.

His guidance and philosophy of life taught us many lessons. Thanking You. The village can be reached by travelling 60 Kms south east of Warangal to Thuroor and another 10 Kms inside. The whole village has farming as the main profession and there are also people of other professions.

The village has a small lake on the outskirts of the village and also a temple of Mahashiva built by the Kakatiyas The eldest person in the village is an 88 year old herbal doctor Mr. Chakali Ramulu. The village also had a very great Herbal doctor Late Mr.

Chenna Samulu; His name is still popular after his death in all the villages around. He is popular because he formulated a cure for paralysis at a very early time when there was not much of cure. The team visited various people and many elders of the village and got to know that they consume Ragula Java in summer and in other seasons for strength and to support their long living. And more facts and knowledge given by the villagers are as below.

Made with powdered dry leafs of Chennemgaku, Murkupuvvu and Bedasavaram. The powdered leaves are added in equal quantities with Mirchi Powder, Traditional Indian spices and Tamarind. It is consumed in little quantity before food. It is said that their flavor and fragrance are incomparable. Chakali Ramulu has provided many herbal practices. For Joint Pains — Boil Neem leaves with stem and apply to the affected place.

For Neck pain and back pain — Maddi Chakka and dates mixed and consumed. For Cracks in Feet — Jeediginjalu and nallanuvvulu with Bellam paakam. The families of the Kishtas have been heading the village since inception. It is named after the person who found the place and started the Thanda. All the traditions in the village have disappeared in the last 15 years.

Bangarchilla Thanda: The Thanda is below 80 years old. Has a story for the name of the Thanda and the story goes that the migrants were travelling by the Banjara vaagu and the found a golden idol of some god and the name Bangaru Gold Chelme A place to drink water has been formed. The village head Mr. Baksha gave few tips for pesticides and herbal medicines. Ompu Thanda: Ompu Thanda is a very young Thanda which was separated just some 10 years before from the Bangarchilla Thanda.

The Thanda is very small and mainly depends on agriculture and cultivate paddy. The government people renamed it for convenience. The Thanda is around years old and the eldest person Paapulu gave some information: l Segunda which is a mixture of segunda leaves and starch is fed to cows for good health.

They used to eat rice only on very special occasions. Another important observation made after visiting all the villages was that the oldest people in all the Thandas and the village did not eat much of rice in their childhood or their youth and they consumed only Jawar Rotis, Mokkajonna gadika and Pappu gadika. Our group of fourteen students was divided into five groups which were supposed to cover two mandals namely Thorrur and Mulugu in Warangal district.

Each group was allotted a village or Thanda and had to stay in that village for 3 days and record details regarding the village. Group details: Hachu Thanda: T. Kalyan Goutham, B. Bala Phani Chand Bussapur: T. Bala Phani Chand, Rakesh Our report of the above mentioned villages is as follows. Hachu Thanda gets its name from its founder Hachu. Hachu Thanda is inhabited by Lambada people and is located in Chintalapalli village, Thorrur mandal of Warangal district. These people originally migrated from Suryapet to other places like Kalledu, Ambapuram and then to Chintallapalli village.

Initially this place had two Gugulothu and two Baanothu families and these 2 groups live in two halves of the village separated by a small road This is not a necessary condition. In the recent past they have been joined by the Dharavathu family. The residents of this village belong to the Scheduled Tribes of the Lambada families.

The villagers claim that their ancestors waged a living by selling salt from Bandar Machilipatnam to Hyderabad. Agriculture and Food: The main occupation of this village has been agriculture since a long time. As there is no water body close to the village, their ancestors faced a severe water problem and had to transport water in leather bags. Their staple food had been Gatka which is supposedly highly nutritious and a main reason for the long lives of their elders.

Another major ingredient in their meals was Bathhaaku which they say is very nutritious and hardly available these days. They used to brush their teeth with coal powder. Their consumption of milk is very less even these days as they mostly leave the milk for the calves. In summers, most of them drink toddy as an alternative to curd. Also due to the sparse vegetation in this region during summer, they rely on dal and pickles for meals. During rainy season, when water is easily available, they grow only Paddy.

In the other seasons, they grow crops like cotton, groundnut, turmeric, mirchi, pesalu moong dal , kandulu, aayindaalu, senagalu, nuvvulu. The types of rice which they grow are Saamasuri BPT , , , erramalli, jejelu. Groundnut remains the widely grown crop in this region. Health: In the early days people and cattle both suffered from very few diseases which can be attributed to their food habits and working style.

In the case of diseases, they say they used leaves and Pasaru of certain trees and tied a Mantram after taking the blessings of Muthyalamma goddess. Some said that revealing the names of these trees would result in the loss of their power and the treatment would become ineffective. But some others gave away the names with no hesitation at all.

According to the second oldest man in the village, there were 33 plants which served as medicines. He said the specimens of these plants are rarely. They are usually found in forests. The bio diversity competition proved very helpful in collecting information in this regard. Children were the main source of our information everywhere. The information collected is as follows: Jammaai chettu: The leaves are boiled in water and tied around the swollen area around legs and the water is used for bathing in case of fever.

Gorintaaku: The paste made from leaves is used for covering minor wounds and is believed to have antiseptic powers. Vaamula chettu: In case of fever, leaves are put in warm water which is used for bathing. Neem tree: Its fruits and leaves are used in medicines. Fruits are soaked in water and used as pesticide and detergent. Navinaara chettu: The skin of this plant is peeled and boiled in water and used for tying bandages in case of swellings on legs.

Mudhhamandhaara chettu: The paste of its leaves applied on hair to maintain and darken the color. Culture: The main festival which they celebrate is Teej. They celebrate it for nine days. The whole village gets together and sacrifices goats as an offering to goddesses. Lambada marriages are celebrated with great pomp and show.

Earlier the proceedings of the marriages used to start three months in advance and end three months after the marriage. The bridegroom was supposed to stay in the in-laws house for the whole of this period. The people of Hachhu Thanda adhere to a very basic standard of living. This village is an epitome of people living in perfect harmony with nature. The diversity in the culture and lifestyles of Hachhu and Dubba Thanda show that geographic parameters can indeed influence these factors adversely.

The major problems faced by the Thandas in the region area all related to drinking water. In some cases, we even got a hostile reception while enquiring about these problems. Also in the rainy season stagnant water poses a grave threat for sanitation in this area and many people fall sick during this season but they somehow seemed to have got used to this whole cycle of seasonal changes.

The Lambadas have a rich cultural heritage of which most of them are not aware. For example their marriages and festivals are very distinct from others. While the elders were talking about these issues, many people including children used to gather around and listen intently. So it is evident that people are interested to know about their culture and roots but just that these kind of activities are not conducted. This village shelters people from various castes and is a perfect example of communal harmony.

We observed that majority of the muslims in this village work as daily wage workers and most of them either do not own land or own little pockets of land. Over the years, the village Bussapur being very close to the forest, people in a move to occupy land have cut down trees to a large extent. So much is the extent of deforestation that all the land around the road from Bussapur to Lakkavaram has been occupied by the villagers.

Now they demand that the govt. This village never has any shortage of water. This can attributed to the good rainfall in this region and also due to Lakkavaram cheruvu which is spread over an area of acres and stores rain water. This lake has 13 islands which are scattered amidst the lush green jungles and make the place blissfully serene.

The tourist department has constructed a hanging bridge connecting the 3 islands recently. This has turned the place into a major tourist destination in this area. But according to the local sources, it is not going according to the initial plan.

They say that the local authorities are not releasing the funds allotted to this scheme properly. The tourist department has proposed for the setting up cottages, yoga centre, restaurants, small scale zoo with distinct wildlife etc on these islands. An other important tourist attraction is the temple built by Kakatiyas in Bussapur. This temple is currently being renovated by ASI and will be an added attraction for the tourists visiting the bridge. The unique feature is that Shiva and Vishnu are in the same temple.

Also, the temple here has some incomplete unique carvings with bold and socially unacceptable sexual connotations. But the village elders say that all this development will indirectly hamper the village culture and eventually lead in the loss of values and morals. The other way of looking at it is that it offers employment to many villagers.

We personally feel that tourism has already had a profound influence on this village. A lot of knowledge about their ancestors has already been lost and even the villagers of Bussapur have become very commercial which is probably inevitable for any tourist destination. The EGS scheme of the govt. From some of the brief conversations with farmers, we found out that most of them are misusing it by just signing attendance and collecting the wages without actually doing any work. Also, some of them asserted that there is no more work available, and hence these practices.

It is surprising to see that a small ditch of 2ft radius caters to the drinking need of the whole village. The water here has been tested by the govt. The marriages here are celebrated in the usual styles. Hindus use pallakis and Muslims use horses in the processions. Our conversations with some toddy farmers gave us some insight into the toddy tapping business. Toddy is tapped from various varieties of palm trees.

Toddy is tapped from both the plants but Thaati Kallu is widely preferred. It is tapped times a day depending on the plant and its age. Toddy is usually drunk fresh to savour the taste. Also storing the toddy for more than 12 hours increases the alcohol content and makes it sour.

A pot of toddy of 1lt approx. The Goud community Goulolu in the village divide all the palm trees equally among themselves and tap them daily. There are three types of Thaati trees namely Podhaada, Parupudhaada and Pantadhaada. To prevent the ants from climbing onto the trees, they use a paste called Jeedi, which is spread around the tree.

This paste is made by heating the Jeedi seeds from sides in a an inverted earthen pot with a small orifice at its bottom. The gum seeping out of the hole is collected and used. But these days they use the engine oil residue from tractor engines which is an easier and cheaper alternative. Also, this pest spreads easily to other trees in the vicinity, hence they cut down the affected tree immediately and burn it down. The oldest man gave a few herbal medications of his age.

Nela Korri was apparently used as a cure for most of the diseases. The bark of the Narramaamidi tree was churned into a paste and used with bandage for broken bones. Jeshuran Venkatesh. The above stem should be exposed to voodh poga or sambrani and haldi pasupu should be applied to it. Method: take duseri teega tender leaves ,crush it till it becomes pulp. About the village : As the name suggests kasimdevpet kasim and devi ,the village is an excellent example of unity in diversified India.

In and around the village kasimdevipet with in a distance of 2 km there are 2 thandas. It seems that the founder of the thanda hails from ramnagar palli,and the other is rammayya thanda named after the founder himself rammayya dora. Only the younger generation of the thanda are well versed with telugu. Its 7 kms from Torrur which is about 60km from warangal. Its developing village. Kishore Reddy started a foundation for the benefit of village in the remembrance of his brother late Nithin Reddy.

They helped us a lot in moving here and there introducing us with the villagers. We were highly surprised on looking the way they live. Initially we felt that there is nothing in the village but later on going deep into their lives we felt ,we are nothing compared to them.

They woke up as early as possible nearly by 4 in the morning and then start their daily activities. Their main way of living is agriculture. They cultivate rice, corn, tamarind, etc. There are many oldest things which we will be describing one by one. Chelama: This is one the oldest well about years back.

As said by the local doctor, water is highly pure and tasty, which is supported by the villagers. All the villagers carry water from here for their drinking purpose. Even though they get municipal water through pipelines, they will get a minimum of two pots from this well. The reason behind its purity is unknown upto now. Although at the bottom of this well there is a big stone they have never seen water insufficiency these many years.

The people refuses to remove that stone expecting that the. But it was a big mystery of availability of water sufficiently these many years. Hope some sort of research might be done to discover the secret behind it. It is the store house of weapons of thieves. They use to store these weapons in this place with a protection in front. The entry is different, we need to go to top with the stairs provided around it.

They use to make a sound dandorra to let the villagers know their presence. There is another gurju which is years old. It was constructed years back. After a few years a harijan with devotion went into the temple and touched the statue. Due to the caste difference the Brahmin worshiping the god left the place saying that he is not going to conduct the prayers. From that moment the temple was closed 10 years back. Inlet is connected to the tank at the top.

It represents the creativity of madipalli. He was appreciated by chiranjeevi. He got many prizes in many competitions. Every child should be provided at least with the primary education. The madipalli children are very lucky to have a primary education. The school walls are painted with India map, along with. There are different types of crops They are PADDY, 2.

CORN, 3. Of all these paddy, turmeric, corn, cotton are the major crops produced. Water facility for the agriculture is not good. There is no fresh water lake for the usage of the crops. There is a well but it is too bad for the cultivation Due to the lack of the water they are not able to cultivate chillies.

Here in this village we mainly find four types of lands. They are 1. Conclusion- Lastly, madipalli is developing village it is provided with many facilities which a common man is required. It has got many innovating brains which are the future citizens of our nation.

Here water agriculture is well developed. They are well provided with school,water tank, etc tit has got many old costructions. Coming to the drawbacks, the poor people are becoming poorest as these facilities are not reaching them. Project Report on Gyan Shodh Exploring knowledge in the depth of nature. It is very important to study the rural lives for development of the nation.

Gyan shodh is not only for documentation of traditional knowledge, identification of innovations present in rural area but also mutual sharing of knowledge. Men, women and children of village are taken into consideration equally to contribute to Gyan Shodh and to the society. NIF The Department of Science and Technology help establish the National Innovation Foundation NIF of India, on Feb 28th , with the main goal of providing institutional support in scouting, spawning, sustaining and scaling up grassroots green innovations and helping their transition to self supporting activities.

The foundation has a Governing Council chaired by Dr. Professor Anil K. The main aim of NIF is to help India become an inventive and creative society and a global leader in sustainable technologies without social and economic handicaps affecting evolution and diffusion of green grassroots innovations.

It provides a voice to creative farmers, artisans and grassroots innovators. The network identifies creative unsung heroes of the society, supports, rewards and facilitates the protection of their work. Innovation augmentation and sustainability of solution is core to the networks philosophy. Based in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, SRISTI Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies is a registered charitable organization that is devoted to empowering the knowledge rich-economically poor people by adding value in their contemporary creativity as well as traditional knowledge.

The objectives were: systematically documenting, disseminating and developing grassroots green innovations, providing intellectual property rights protection to grassroots innovators, working on the in situ and ex situ conservation of local biodiversity, and providing venture support to grassroots innovators. For Gyan Shodh four villages were selected near to Dornala and each group was allotted a village for scouting and documenting Traditional Knowledge and innovation if any.

Gyan Shodh was held on 11th to 13th September, Chenchu tribes live in the village; population is approximately Their traditional way of life has been based on hunting and gathering. In general, the Chenchu relationship to nontribal people has been largely symbiotic. Some Chenchus have continued to specialize in collecting forest products for sale to non-tribal people. Culture: The Chenchus are referred to as one of the Primitive Tribal Groups that are still dependent on forests and do not cultivate land but hunt for a living.

Caste Hindus living among them rent land from the Chenchus and pay a portion of the harvest. Dalits also settled among them with the help of the Chenchus and learned agriculture from them, and the nomadic Banjara herders who graze their cattle in the forest also have been allotted land there. The Chenchus have responded unenthusiastically to government efforts to induce them to take up farming themselves. Because of their long association with Hindu hermits and their refusal to eat beef, Chenchus are considered an unpolluted group by caste Hindus.

People have lots of livestock such as cattle, goat, sheep, hen etc. To know the culture of the villagers and their way of living by meeting oldest man and woman of the village, sharing our knowledge and feelings to them. To learn about the experiences of the farmers engaged in organic farming and inform other farmers about the same.

To document their traditional herbal practice and how they manage with natural calamities. To know vast Biodiversity of Nallamal forest. To know process their way of hunting and gathering goods from the forest. To encourage the curiosity of the children about variety in organic farming and to discover the knowledge of bio and crop diversity among rural people.

To meet the people who solve their problems through their presence of mind and inborn ability, store their knowledge and felicitate them. To compile and disseminate the knowledge, which is fast disappearing and establish a dialogue between the old generation and future generation 9.

To know the recipes which are adopted by the villagers and their food habits. To identify the talents and knowledge of the children of the village. We had completed Gyan Shodh successfully with following purpose: h To build linkages between excellence in formal scientific systems and informal knowledge systems and create knowledge network to link various stakeholders through application of information technology and other means.

Documentation also gives proper rights to the knowledge holder and prevents misuse of it. Without rural development, progress of a nation is not possible. Observing the nature closely because is full of knowledge. Thus we could work hard with enjoying each activity. We were very close to nature and natural lives. We respected them as well as their culture, thus they could also consider us as one of them during those 2 days stay.

The planning and preparation before the Gyanshodh had set the stage for the realization of an exotic experience beset with tantalizing challenges. We reached to Chintala village within 30 minutes and school is our entry point in the village. The coordinator who is accompanying with us introduced us to the School Head master and teachers, and then he left from there. Then the time came for us to really start our work with our own. This is the residential school of about children and we enquired about the school, from where this children are belongs to.

This is way we entered into the village. Title of Activity: To familiarize with the village Purpose of Activity: Visit of first day is just to make familiarize with people in the village and know about village and their activities. To make the people in the village about, whom we are and why we. Main objective is to find out what are innovations exist in the village and as well as traditional knowledge and their cultures. Strategy adopted: As we know in any village, head of the village is a huge resource for anyone and without his consent it would be difficult for us to explore.

He can be great mentor and guide for us in this journey. So we enquired about him and a teenager has taken us to his house. We were lucky that he was there in his house when we went to his house. He introduced us to the people in the villages and the following information we collected from them. The name of the village head is Hanumaiah. About the village The village is concentrated in heavily dense Nallamalai forest areas that combine inaccessibility with limited political or economic significance.

Their main lively hood depends on hunting and gathering from the forest, it is the principal occupation and some people will be carrying out farming or agriculture activities. The majority of people are illiterate where we can find only few people whose education is up to secondary education. Culture and Tradition: The villagers depend on nature for ninety percent of their food supply. The common food was honey, the roots of trees, plants, and the flesh of animals caught in hunting.

A typical day was spent in gathering the fruits and roots to be eaten that day. People leave home in early morning between 5 to 6 am and around 10 to 11 am they comeback from forest. Gathering may be done in small groups but is still today a solitary activity without cooperation from others.

Hunting is also a solitary rather than cooperative effort that rarely produces much game. Hunting is done with bow and arrow, occasionally with a gun. No trapping or snaring is done. There is division of labor between the sexes: men hunt, gather honey, and make baskets; women most of the household works as well as prepare food. Gathering is done by both sexes although the men may go further afield, even spending two to three days away from the community.

For their protection they use bow and arrow which is made by them. A few buffalo, cows may be kept in a village for milk but are not eaten. There was an interesting that they never sell their milk or curd, they just share between them.

They live in hurts but it is very neat and clean. They use cow dung in their courtyards which provides smoothness and absorbs rain water. Their language is also known as Chenchucoolam, Chenchwar, Chenswar or Choncharu. In general physically they are short in height with long head, well defined eyebrows with the flat nose. They have jet black curly hair and their complexion varies from wheat gray to brown.

People have broad faces. They are characterized by independence and personal freedom. Young people are free to marry whomsoever they like and can get apart whenever they like. Their present habitat is confined to the rocky hills of the in the Nallamalai hills, extending on both sides of the Krishna River.

They live in bee hive shaped tiny huts with wattle walls. They are appreciated as great climbers. Immediately after injection in mice inoculated into footpads with L. Silymarin showed no significant effect on the response of L. The results of this study suggest that silymarin in conjunction with glucantime may have benefit effects in murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Antimony trioxide. For over 60 years, pentavalent antimony Sbv has been the first-line treatment of leishmaniasis.

Sickle cell anemia is a disease caused by a defect in red blood cells, which among other things can cause vasooclusive crisis. We report the case of a 6-year-old child with leishmaniasis who during treatment with meglumine antimoniate developed a sickle cell crisis SCC. No previous reports describing the relationship between antimonial drugs and sickle cell disease were found.

Reviews of both the pathophysiology of SCC and the mechanism of action of Sbv revealed that a common pathway glutathione may have resulted in the SCC. ChemoText, a novel database created to predict chemical-protein-disease interactions, was used to perform a more expansive and systematic review that was able to support the association between glutathione, Sbv, and SCC.

Although suggestive evidence to support the hypothesis, additional research at the bench would be needed to prove Sbv caused the SCC. Cost-effectiveness analysis of thermotherapy versus pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is toxic, has contraindications, and a high cost.

The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of thermotherapy versus pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Effectiveness was the proportion of healing and safety with the adverse effects; these parameters were estimated from a controlled clinical trial and a meta-analysis.

A standard costing was conducted. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated. The uncertainty regarding effectiveness, safety, and costs was determined through sensitivity analyses. The therapeutic effectiveness rates were Based on the meta-analysis, thermotherapy may be a dominant strategy. The excellent cost-effectiveness ratio of thermotherapy shows the relevance of its inclusion in guidelines for the treatment. Incidental intrathecal injection of meglumine diatrizoate.

Myelograghy is a process of instilling contrast medium to the subarachnoid space for evaluating the spinal column by radiography. There are various contrast solutions for different radiographic studies but not all of them are suitable for spinal column evaluation.

Our patient was a year-old man who developed severe pain, tonic clonic convulsions and cardiopulmonary arrest after intrathecal injection of 14 mL of meglumine diatrizoate during an elective myelography procedure. Many of these cases would die or suffer from permanent sequelae if appropriate treatment is not received. Our subject recovered completely without any sequelae after receiving appropriate treatment in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.

Spinal myoclonus following intrathecal administration of diatrizoate meglumine. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria occurred. The patient was successfully treated with midazolam and vecuronium and complete recovery occurred. Effect of topical honey application along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Although many treatments have been suggested for this disease, there hasn't been an effective and safe treatment yet. Regarding the healing effect of honey in the chronic ulcers and its reported therapeutic effect in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we performed a study to better evaluate the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis and its final scar. In a prospective clinical trial, patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected and randomized into 2 groups.

Group A were treated with topical honey twice daily along with intralesional injection of glucantime once weekly until complete healing of the ulcer or for maximum of 6 weeks. Group B were treated with intralesional injection of glucantime alone until complete healing of the ulcer or for a maximum of 6 weeks, too. The patients were followed for 4 months. The collected data were analyzed statistically using statistical tests including Chi-square, Mann Whitney and Kaplan-Mayer tests.

In this study, 45 patients that had cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with intralesional glucantime alone and 45 patients were treated with topical honey and glucantime. Ten patients left out the study. In the glucantime alone treated group, 32 patients Further studies to better clarify the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed.

We suggest that in another study, the efficacy of honey with standardized level of antibacterial activity is evaluated against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Antimony : a flame fighter. In the 11th century, the word antimonium was used by medieval scholar Constantinus Africanus, but antimony metal was not isolated until the 16th century by Vannoccio Biringuccio, an Italian metallurgist.

In the early 18th century, chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony Sb based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite. Possible links between sickle cell crisis and pentavalent antimony. For over 60 years, pentavalent antimony Sb v has been the first-line treatment of leishmaniasis. Reviews of both the pathophysiology of SCC and the mechanism of action of Sb v revealed that a common pathway glutathione may have resulted in the SCC.

ChemoText, a novel database created to predict chemical-protein-disease interactions, was used to perform a more expansive and systematic review that was able to support the association between glutathione, Sb v , and SCC. Although suggestive evidence to support the hypothesis, additional research at the bench would be needed to prove Sb v caused the SCC. Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans.

The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials such as Pentostam or Glucantime are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis.

Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony Sb V acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form Sb III. However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. Leishmania aquaglyceroporin AQP1 facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient.

In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials , than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA.

Effect of diatrizoate meglumine Hypaque on the perilymphatic oxygen tension. The effect of diatrizoate meglumine Hypaque upon the perilymphatic oxygenation has been investigated using the polarographic method in cats submitted to various conditions such as normoxia, apnea, hypercapnia and chronically reduced vascularization. The minimal changes of the perilymphatic PO2 recorded after the injection of Hypaque permit to conclude that this drug has no practical effect upon the oxygenation of the perilymph.

Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle. The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor Flunixin Meglumine FM; 1. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows.

Treatment should not exceed 5 consecutive days. The effect of this drug on pregnancy has not been The effect of this drug on pregnancy has not been determined. Not for use in horses intended for food Liposomal amphotericin B versus pentavalent antimony salts for visceral Leishmania in children.

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a day schedule of liposomal amphotericin B compared to pentavalent antimony salts in the treatment of patients during a first episode of visceral leishmaniasis. The study group was composed of 11 males One group included 11 patients who were treated with pentavalent antimony salts, sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate , intramuscularly for 28 days.

While pentavalent antimony salts were found to increase biochemical and hematological findings, liposomal amphotericin B was responsible for rapid recovery in fever and shorter hospital stay. As a result, our study shows the advantages of both medications independent of their costs.

Meglumine exerts protective effects against features of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetes complications pose a growing medical challenge worldwide, accentuating the need of safe and effective strategies for their clinical management. Here we present preclinical evidence that the sorbitol derivative meglumine N-methyl-D-glucamine can safely protect against several features of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as elicit enhancement in muscle stamina.

Meglumine is a compound routinely used as an approved excipient to improve drug absorption that has not been ascribed any direct biological effects in vivo. Normal mice SV administered 18 mM meglumine orally for six weeks did not display any gastrointestinal or other observable adverse effects, but had a marked effect on enhancing muscle stamina and at longer times in limiting weight gain.

In the established KK. Compared to untreated control animals, meglumine reduced apparent diabetic nephropathy. Sorbitol can improve blood glucose uptake by liver and muscle in a manner associated with upregulation of the AMPK-related enzyme SNARK, but with undesirable gastrointestinal side effects not seen with meglumine. In murine myoblasts, we found that meglumine increased steady-state SNARK levels in a dose-dependent manner more potently than sorbitol. Taken together, these findings provide support for the clinical evaluation of meglumine as a low-cost, safe supplement offering the potential to improve muscle function, limit metabolic syndrome and reduce diabetic complications.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health problem. Information on protein expression patterns and functional roles within the context of Leishmania -infected human monocyte-derived macrophages MDMs under drug treatment conditions is essential for understanding the role of these cells in leishmaniasis treatment.

Subcellular localization studies showed a primarily phagolysosomal location for the ABCB5 transporter, indicating that this protein may be involved in the transport of Sb V By inducing a decrease in L. Information on protein expression patterns and functional roles within the context of Leishmania-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages MDMs under drug treatment conditions is essential for understanding the role of these cells in leishmaniasis treatment.

Subcellular localization studies showed a primarily phagolysosomal location for the ABCB5 transporter, indicating that this protein may be involved in the transport of SbV. By inducing a decrease in L. Our results suggest that human MDMs infected with L. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted to determine whether the NOP is as effective as Glucantime for the treatment of CL. The cure rates after a 3-month follow-up were Despite the lower efficacy of the NOP versus Glucantime , a significantly lower frequency of non-serious adverse events and a reduced variation in serum markers were observed in patients treated with NOP.

Treatment of CL with NOP resulted in a lower effectiveness compared with Glucantime ; however, the low frequency of adverse events and the facility of topic administration justify the development of new generations of NOP systems for the treatment of CL. Clinical application of oral meglumine diatrizoate esophagogram in screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

Esophageal fistula is a serious and common complication of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Because of side effect of barium esophagography, it cannot be used to screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy. Meglumine diatrizoate is an ionic contrast agent, its adverse reactions were rarely seen when it was used in the body cavity. The purpose of this trial is identified the sensitivity and specificity of oral meglumine diatrizoate in an esophagogram for screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy.

This trial was a prospective, multicenter, diagnostic clinical trial. A total of patients with esophageal cancer will swallowed meglumine diatrizoate and underwent a radiographic examination weekly during radiotherapy, medical personnel observed the esophageal lesions to determine whether an esophageal fistula formed. And the sensitivity and specificity of meglumine diatrizoate should be calculated for screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy.

To our knowledge, this study protocol is the first to identify the sensitivity and specificity of oral meglumine diatrizoate in an esophagogram for screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy. If oral meglumine diatrizoate can be used to screening esophageal fistula, more patients will benefit from early detection and treatment. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony. Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia.

First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide. This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony Sb material and its alloy with As SbAs using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain. Geomicrobial interactions with arsenic and antimony.

Although arsenic and antimony are generally toxic to life, some microorganisms exist that can metabolize certain forms of these elements. Some can use arsenite or stibnite as potential or sole energy sources, whereas others can use aresenate and antimonite as was discovered only recently as terminal electron acceptors. Still other microbes can metabolize arsenic and antimony compounds to detoxify them. These reactions are important from a geomicrobial standpoint because they indicate that a number of microbes contribute to arsenic and antimony mobilization or immobilization in the environment and play a role in arsenic and antimony cycles.

Recent reviews include five on prokaryotes and arsenic metabolism, a review with an arsenic perspective on biomining, and a series on environmental antimony , including one about antimony and its interaction with microbiota. Mineral resource of the month: antimony. The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony.

Antimony , which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

Transdermal flunixin meglumine minimally alters neutrophil functionality in beef heifers administered a respiratory disease challenge. The objectives were to determine the effects of altering time of transdermal flunixin meglumine BTD; Banamine Transdermal, Merck Animal Health administration relative to a viral-bacterial challenge in beef heifers.

Following the September 11, terrorist attacks, letters containing Bacillus anthracis were distributed through the United States postal system killing five people. A complex forensic investigation commenced to identify the perpetrator of these mailings. Meglumine and diatrizoate are components of radiographic imaging products that have been used to purify bacterial spores.

Two separate chromatographic assays using multiple mass spectrometric analyses were developed for the detection of meglumine and diatrizoate. The assays achieved limits of detection for meglumine and diatrizoate of 1. Bacillus cereus T strain spores were effectively used as a surrogate for B. This protocol was successfully applied to limited evidentiary B. Published This article is a U. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.

The use of iohexol in pediatric urography: a comparative study with meglumine diatrizoate. In a prospective study the nephrotoxicity of iohexol, a new non-ionic contrast medium, was compared with meglumine diatrizoate. Plasma creatinine, BUN, creatinine clearance, urinalysis and the urinary excretion of N-acetyl glucosaminidase NAG , gamma glutamyl transpeptidase GGT and muramidase MU were determined prior to and following intravenous pyelography.

A significant rise in the enzyme excretion was observed in patients who received iohexol and diatrizoate. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate any difference in nephrotoxicity between the two iodinated contrast media. The effect of in-vivo intravenous administration of sodium meglumine diatrizoate on some haematological parameters. To investigate the in-vivo effects of intravenous administration of sodium meglumine diatrizoate on some haematological parameters in a Nigerian population.

Blood samples were collected before and one hour after intravenous injection of sodium- meglumine diatrizoate from 50 subjects undergoing intravenous urography examinations who had no history of and laboratory confirmed diseases that may affect haematological parameters. Standard laboratory methods were used to assay the haemoglobin concentration Hb , packed cell volume PCV , total white blood cell WBC count and differentials and blood film for any morphological changes in the red blood cells RBC.

Comparisons were made between the mean values of these haematological parameters before and one hour post injection using paired t-test for any statistically significant differences. There were statistically significant reductions in the mean values of Hb concentration and the neutrophil count one hour post injection compared with their pretest values p meglumine diatrizoate causes in-vivo reduction in Hb concentration and neutrophil count in humans as well as poikilocytosis of the erythrocytes.

Some of these effects have the potential of triggering or exacerbating crisis in a sickle cell anaemia subject which is endemic in our locality. Caution should therefore be exercised in the choice and administration of radiological contrast agents to sickle cell subjects. Preparations that are iso-osmolar with plasma and have less probability in precipitating crises should be preferred instead. Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism.

The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole.

Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug control , flunixin meglumine , or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls.

Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant P-value meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and.

A year-old Japanese man visited our hospital for chronic abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea and discharge of proglottids for 7 years. He had been living in Lao People's Democratic Republic. A Taenia saginata including the scolex was excreted through the intestinal tract by the administration of total ml of Gastrografin.

Taeniasis is an important disease in the differential diagnosis of imported diseases in Japan. Parasite infection should be suspected in patients with chronic abdominal pain or persistent diarrhea regardless of the findings for small bowel obstruction when there is a history of overseas travel. Intra-arterial bolus of I labeled meglumine diatrizoate. Early extravascular distribution. A mixture of I labeled meglumine diatrizoate and I labeled human serum albumin was injected into the lower abdominal aorta of 30 anesthetized, laparotomized male rats.

Measurements of the activities in cardiac blood and in different tissues of the hindlimbs and tests were perfomed at six time intervals ranging from 5 seconds to 2 minutes after injection, the determine early uptake and distribution volumes of diatrizoate. Concentrations and distribution volumes were initially much greater than values obtained after intravenous injection, but these differences had considerably decreased or disappeared by 2 minutes.

Intravenous bolus of I labeled meglumine diatrizoate. A mixture of I labeled meglumine diatrizoate and I labeled human serum albumin was injected into the femoral vein of 26 anesthetized male rats. Measurements of the activities in cardiac blood and in different tissues of the lower extremity and in the testis were performed at time intervals ranging from 5 s to 5 min after injection.

The determination of tissue uptake and distribution volumes of diatrizoate showed widely differing accumulation of contrast medium. Over 50 per cent of the intravenous bolus of diatrizoate was extravascular at 40 s. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways. Antimony Sb is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere.

Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment.

In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes. Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification.

The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas.

However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

Characterization of defects in copper antimony disulfide. Copper antimony disulfide CuSbS 2 has several excellent bulk optoelectronic properties for photovoltaic absorber applications. Here, we report on the defect properties in CuSbS 2thin film materials and photovoltaic devices studied using several experimental methods supported by theoretical calculations. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes. Pharmacokinetics of multiple doses of transdermal flunixin meglumine in adult Holstein dairy cows.

A transdermal formulation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flunixin meglumine , has been approved in the United States and Canada for single-dose administration. Transdermal flunixin meglumine was administered to 10 adult Holstein cows in their second or third lactation at the label dose of 3.

Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy HPLC-MS. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed on each individual animal with noncompartmental methods using computer software.

The time to maximum drug concentration Tmax was 2. The mean accumulation factor was 1. This indicates changes in dosing may not be required when giving multiple doses of flunixin transdermal. Further work is required to investigate the clinical efficacy of transdermal flunixin after multiple daily doses. Intestinal obstruction and constipation are common conditions in patients with advanced neoplasms.

Diatrizoate Meglumine has been used in the management of both these conditions without good quality evidence of its effectiveness and safety. This audit aimed to assess the usage, effectiveness and adverse effects of Diatrizoate Meglumine for intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms. A retrospective chart review was undertaken. Descriptive statistics were utilised. Seventy-one patients received Diatrizoate Meglumine.

The most common diagnoses were ovarian or primary peritoneal neoplasms Diatrizoate Meglumine was most commonly used for intestinal obstruction Diatrizoate Meglumine was well tolerated and may be effective in resolving intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms.

Quality controlled studies are needed to further guide the use of Diatrizoate Meglumine in intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms. Acute metabolic responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge in heifers administered transdermal flunixin meglumine. A trial was conducted to determine effects of altering time of transdermal flunixin meglumine BTD; Banamine Transdermal, Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ administration relative to a viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge in beef heifers.

Acute immunological responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge in heifers administered transdermal flunixin meglumine. Use of nonimaging nuclear medicine techniques to assess the effect of flunixin meglumine on effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow in healthy horses.

The effect of flunixin meglumine on renal function was studied in 6 healthy horses by use of nonimaging nuclear medicine techniques. Effective renal plasma flow ERPF and effective renal blood flow ERBF were determined by plasma clearance of I-orthoiodohippuric acid before and after administration of flunixin meglumine.

Efficacy of pentavalent antimoniate intralesional infiltration therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis: A systematic review. Background The mainstays of cutaneous leishmaniasis CL treatment, in several world regions, are pentavalent antimony Sbv compounds administered parenterally, despite their recognized toxicity, which requires frequent laboratory monitoring and complicates their use in areas with scarce infrastructure.

As result of these drawbacks, the WHO Expert Committee on leishmaniasis has expanded the recommendations for the use of local therapies, including Sbv intralesional infiltration IL-Sbv , as CL therapy alternatives even in the New World. However, the efficacy of these approaches has never been compiled.

The aim of this study was to critically and systematically assess the efficacy of IL-Sbv for CL treatment. The outcome of interest was a clinical cure, defined as complete re-epithelialization of all lesions. The IL-Sbv pooled cure rate was estimated for several subgroups and direct comparisons were performed when possible. Results Thirty nine articles 40 studies involving patients treated with IL-Sbv infiltration were included.

Interaction between antimony atoms and micropores in silicon. Odzhaev, V. The interaction between Sb atoms and micropores of a getter layer in silicon is studied. The antimony atoms located in the vicinity of micropores are captured by micropores during gettering annealing and lose its electrical activity.

The activation energy of capture process to the pores for antimony is lower than that of antimony diffusion in silicon deformation fields around microvoids on the diffusion process. Comparison of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam influence on postoperative and oxidative stress in ovariohysterectomized bitches. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of flunixin meglumine FM and meloxicam M on postoperative and oxidative stress in ovariohysterectomized bitches. The concentrations of serum cortisol, nitric oxide NO , malondialdehyde MDA , antioxidant potential AOP and glutation GSH were measured in blood samples collected during incision 0 h , closure of incision line 0.

It was observed that cortisol level was higher at 0. Therefore, it is suggested that postoperative stress following ovariohysterectomy may be prevented by flunixin meglumine. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in mature swine after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration.

Appropriate pain management for lameness in swine is a critical control point for veterinarians and producers, but science-based guidance on optimal housing, management and treatment of lameness is deficient. Results No adverse effects were observed with flunixin meglumine administration for all routes. Flunixin meglumine was administered at an actual mean dose of 2. TMAX was recorded at 1. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that FM oral administration is not the most effective administration route for mature swine when compared to IV and IM.

Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that presents various clinical manifestations. Many studies have shown that the parasite plays an important role in the clinical manifestations and prognosis of this disease. The cutaneous and mucosal forms of American tegumentary leishmaniasis ATL are associated with Leishmania Viannia braziliensis, which exhibits intraspecific genetic polymorphisms and various clinical manifestations. The present study focused on four different L.

The isolates were described based on their molecular, biological, and infective characteristics. Complement resistance was evaluated using guinea pig serum. Infection to murine peritoneal macrophages, cytokine and nitric oxide were analyzed. Ultrastructural features were determined by transmission electron microscopy, and molecular characteristics were determined based on random amplified polymorphic DNA RAPD.

All of the L. Markedly lower infectivity indexes were observed for all strains in the LOG phase, with different cytokine profiles. We report the effects of antimony Sb doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon a-C:H films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used.

The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony , in the film deposited from the 1. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon.

The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3. The electrical resistivity reduced from These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

Serum electrolyte and protein changes after intravenous injection of sodium and meglumine diatrizoate urograffin Serum electrolyte and protein changes in 35 Nigerian patients undergoing intravenous urography were evaluated after injection of 60 mls sodium and meglumine diatrizoate Urograffin Statistically, significant changes were noted in the values of serum calcium, proteins and albumin at 5 and 30 minutes after the injection P A Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety Study of Gadoterate Meglumine in Pediatric Subjects Aged Younger Than 2 Years.

Objectives The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric patients younger than 2 years; the secondary objectives were to document its efficacy and safety. Material and Methods This was a Phase IV open-label, prospective study conducted in 9 centers 4 countries.

Forty-five patients younger than 2 years with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate and scheduled to undergo routine gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI of any organ were included and received a single intravenous injection of gadoterate meglumine 0.

To perform the population pharmacokinetics analysis, 3 blood samples per subject were drawn during 3 time windows at time points allocated by randomization. Results Gadoterate meglumine concentrations were best fitted using a 2-compartmental model with linear elimination from central compartment. The median total clearance adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0. The median volume of distribution at steady state Vss adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0. Lesion visualization was improved with a mean SD increase in scores at subject level of 0.

Twenty-six adverse events occurred postinjection in 13 subjects The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric patients younger than 2 years; the secondary objectives were to document its efficacy and safety.

This was a Phase IV open-label, prospective study conducted in 9 centers 4 countries. Gadoterate meglumine concentrations were best fitted using a 2-compartmental model with linear elimination from central compartment. One subject 2. In vitro antileishmanial activity of fisetin flavonoid via inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis and arginase activity in Leishmania infantum.

With the increasing emergence of drug resistant Leishmania sp. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the fisetin alone and combination of fisetin plus Meglumine antimoniate Fi-MA against Leishmania infantum. The IC50 values for fisetin were obtained 0. The decreased levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, accompanying by the raised level of NO in treated macrophages with MA, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fi-MA treatment.

In conclusion, these findings showed that fisetin improves MA side effects. The exposure to and health effects of antimony. Context: This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being.

Methods: The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. Results: The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact , other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health.

Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters.

Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like.

Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential. The first line drug against leishmaniasis consists of pentavalent antimony [Sb V ], but there is general belief that the active form of the metal is the trivalent form [Sb III ]. In this study, we have quantified the accumulation of Sb V and Sb III in Leishmania by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

The accumulation was studied in three Leishmania species at various life stages, sensitive or resistant to antimony. The level of accumulation of either Sb III or Sb V , however, was not correlated with the susceptibility of wild-type Leishmania cells to antimony.

This suggests that other factors may also be implicated in the mode of action of the drugs. In contrast to metal susceptibility, resistance to Sb III correlated well with decreased antimony accumulation. This phenotype was energy dependent and highlights the importance of transport systems in drug resistance of this protozoan parasite.

Comparison of the excretion of sodium and meglumine diatrizoate at urography with simulated compression: an experimental study in the rat. In the experimental model in the rabbit the excretion of sodium and meglumine diatrizoate, respectively, have been compared. More reliable dose optima are probably found when calculating density rather than determining urine concentrations.

Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey. To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter.

Cross-sectional study. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test FAST.

During the same time period, liver tissues from healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of suspect cull dairy cows, 50 7. Thirty-one of Two of the 0. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter.

Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply. Prospective randomized trial of iohexol versus meglumine sodium diatrizoate as an oral contrast agent for abdominopelvic computed tomography. To compare the efficacy and patient tolerance of iohexol and meglumine sodium diatrizoate as oral contrast agents for computed tomography CT.

One hundred patients were randomly assigned to drink mL of either meglumine sodium diatrizoate or iohexol before their abdominopelvic CT examination. The images were evaluated independently and in a blinded fashion by 2 radiologists who scored the extent and density of bowel opacification. Attenuation value measurements were obtained in representative areas of each gastrointestinal tract segment stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon by a research technologist.

Patients' tolerance of the oral contrast agent was assessed through a questionnaire administered immediately after the CT and with a follow-up phone call 2 to 3 days later. For most of the bowel, there was no statistically significant difference in the extent or degree of opacification between the 2 contrast agents.

Opacification of the ileum was better with iohexol. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 agents in adverse effects. Patients had a small but statistically significant preference for the taste of iohexol. Iohexol is a satisfactory oral contrast agent for abdominopelvic CT. It opacifies the gastrointestinal tract as well as meglumine sodium diatrizoate does, and patients prefer the taste of iohexol to that of diatrizoate.

Antimony diffusion in CdTe. Group V dopants may be used for next-generation high-voltage cadmium telluride CdTe solar photovoltaics, but fundamental defect energetics and kinetics need to be understood. Here, antimony Sb diffusion is studied in single-crystal and polycrystalline CdTe under Cd-rich conditions. Diffusion profiles are determined by dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy and analyzed with analytical bulk and grain-boundary diffusion models.

Slow bulk and fast grain-boundary diffusion are found. Density functional theory is used to understand formation energy and mechanisms. Lastly, the theory and experimental results create new understanding of group V defect kinetics in CdTe. Effect of flunixin meglumine and carprofen on pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. Embryonic losses contribute considerably to low pregnancy rates.

Flunixin meglumine FM has been demonstrated to delay luteolysis and to support embryonic survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FM and carprofen on conception rates in dairy heifers and cows, respectively. In experiment 1, the effect of FM on pregnancy rates and progesterone concentrations in dairy heifers was tested. A total of heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Pregnancy rates were In experiment 2, the objective was to verify the effects of carprofen, a longer acting nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and to evaluate its effect on conception rate to first service in dairy cows.

A total of cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Pregnancy was diagnosed between d 40 and 47 after insemination. Conception rates to first service were Nuclear orientation of antimony and bromine isotopes. The technique of Low Temperature Nuclear Orientation has been used to study neutron deficient antimony and bromine isotopes.

Further anisotropy measurements on [ The magnetic moment of [72]Br has been limited to be within the range 0. Leishmaniasis is a disease that affects 2 million people and kills persons every year. It is caused by Leishmania species, which are human protozoan parasites of the trypanosomatidae family. The current treatment of leishmaniasis relies mainly on antimonial drugs. The crystal structures of oxidized trypanothione reductase TR from Leishmania infantum and of the complex of reduced TR with NADPH and Sb III , reported in this paper, disclose for the first time the molecular mechanism of action of antimonial drugs against the parasite.

Sb III , which is coordinated by the two redox-active catalytic cysteine residues Cys52 and Cys57 , one threonine residue Thr , and His' of the 2-fold symmetry related subunit in the dimer, strongly inhibits TR activity. Because TR is essential for the parasite survival and virulence and it is absent in mammalian cells, these findings provide insights toward the design of new more affordable and less toxic drugs against Leishmaniasis.

Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska. Antimony -bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony -bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away.

The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock.

The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony.

Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines.

The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect. The creation and exchange of biologically relevant models is of great interest to many researchers.

When multiple standards are in use, models are more readily used and re-used if there exist robust translators between the various accepted formats. Antimony 2. All provided unique challenges, stemming from differences in each format's inherent design, in addition to differences in functionality.

Topical terbinafine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: triple blind randomized clinical trial. Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of disease condition with considerable health impacts, caused by different species of Leishmania. This disease is currently endemic in 98 countries and territories in the world.

There are many treatment modalities for cutaneous leishmaniasis. The use of topical terbinafine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been considered. Although, there was no statistically significant different between the two treatment groups, but clinically it seems that the treatment rate in those who receive glucantime plus terbinafine was more effective than the other group. However this rate depended on the type of lesions.

As data indicated ulcerated nodules, papules and plaque in experimental group have been completely improved two times faster than placebo group. Ulcerated nodules, nodules and plaque were partially improved faster in those used tebinafine than placebo ointment. In vitro enantioselective pharmacodynamics of Carprofen and Flunixin- meglumine in feedlot cattle. These findings are discussed in relation to the prediction of the clinical relevance of COX inhibition by the test drugs in cattle.

Preoperative bowel preparation with meglumine and sodium diatrizoate Gastrografin : a prospective randomised comparison. To test the use of meglumine and sodium diatrizoate Gastrografin as an agent for preoperative mechanical bowel preparation. Prospective randomised comparison. County general hospital, Greece. Tolerability, acceptability, quality of cleansing, and complications. There were no disturbances in electrolyte concentrations, and other laboratory variables also remained unchanged.

Two patients treated with Ringer's solution had appreciable increases in arterial blood pressure, but there were no significant overall changes. About half the patients given Ringer's felt nauseated and a third vomited. Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery.

Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA OR 1. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders.

Published by Elsevier Inc. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method 1D , depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at and The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method 1DD , depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied.

The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones. The effect of breed and sex on sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine pharmacokinetic parameters in swine.

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